Hand-to-hand combat basics

  1. General concept

Hand-to-hand combat should not be an end in itself. It is necessary not only to win in hand-to-hand combat, but also to complete the task. Therefore, it is necessary to be able to conduct hand-to-hand combat with minimal energy consumption.

The science of ergonomics studies issues related to minimal energy consumption during the performance of any work or actions, with the optimization of human activity.

Ergonomics is a scientific discipline that comprehensively studies a person (group of people) in specific conditions of his (their) activities related to the use of technical means (machines). In ergonomics, man, machine, and environment are considered as a complex, functioning whole, in which the leading role belongs to the person.

Ergonomics solves the problems of rational organization of people's activities in the system "man-machine-environment" (MCM), the appropriate distribution of functions between a person and a machine (technical means), determining the criteria for optimizing the MCM, taking into account the capabilities and characteristics of the working person (group of people).

Rational is the technique or tactic that is best for the majority of people in a particular group.

Optimal is the best option out of all possible options. Each person has their own, individual, optimal option.

The combination of components: human, technical means, working environment-creates an anthropotechnical system that acquires new features and properties. These include, first of all, flexibility, adaptability, learning ability, ability to solve creative tasks, ability to perform actions in conditions of incomplete information and without precisely prescribed algorithms.

  1. General ergonomic requirements

Hand-to-hand combat will take place in a certain space. In this space, the entire complex of actions characteristic of hand-to-hand combat will take place, namely: movement, actions with weapons, physical contact with the enemy, and more. Naturally, during physical contact, various blows are likely, including kicks and hands, and defensive actions with feet and hands.

In ergonomics, when considering the work space in which hand and foot movements are involved, there are zones of reach, optimal and easy reach.

The reach zone is a part of the working space bounded by arcs described by the maximum extended arms when moving them in the shoulder joint, and the maximum extended legs when moving them in the hip joint.

The zone of easy reach is a part of the working space bounded by arcs described by relaxed arms when moving them in the shoulder joint, and relaxed legs when moving them in the hip joint.

The optimal reach zone is a part of the working space bounded by the arcs described by the forearms when moving in the elbow joints, and the shins when moving in the knee joints.

An important criterion is the viewing angle. When viewing objects of complex configuration, as well as when viewing three-dimensional and perspective images, the optimal viewing angle in the horizontal plane is 30-40o. For the perception of a flat image with relatively simple information, we recommend a viewing angle of 50-60o, covering the area of unclear shape distinction (within this angle, the observer notices the changes taking place with peripheral vision). The maximum viewing angle with simultaneous movement of the eyes and head is 180o. However, when displaying information with high processing speed requirements, the allowed viewing angle is 90 degrees.

In the vertical plane, the optimal viewing angle is 0-30o relative to the horizontal (15o up and 15o down from the normal line of sight).

The normal line of sight corresponds to the most convenient position of the eyes and head when viewing objects and is located at an angle of 15 degrees down from the horizontal line of sight. The maximum viewing angle in the vertical plane when turning only the eyes is 70o, while the simultaneous movement of the eyes and head, the maximum viewing angle is 90o up and 55o down from the horizontal.

When conducting hand-to-hand combat, it is necessary to provide for a rational position of the body, which should be comfortable and free. According to biomechanics ,the "position of the body" is determined by its orientation and location in space, as well as its relation to the support. Each of the positions is characterized by certain equilibrium conditions, which are determined mainly by the size of the support area, the position of the General center of gravity in relation to the support area. In addition, each of these positions is characterized by a certain mutual location of the links of the support apparatus, the degree of muscle tension, the position of internal organs, the state of the circulatory and respiratory systems and, consequently, energy consumption.

It is necessary to know that a stable position of the body is beneficial from an energy point of view. In this position, the moment of gravity is zero, and there is no need to compensate for it with muscle efforts.

In hand-to-hand combat, different body positions occur. In each of the positions, you can distinguish an infinite number of poses.

A pose is a relative arrangement of the body's links, independent of the orientation and location of the body in space and its relation to the support. When it comes to physical activity, the term "pose" is used as the most frequent and preferred position of body parts when performing motor operations.

The most natural position for a person is the "standing" position. Its maintenance is provided by the presence of a number of anatomical and physiological features of the human body: the bends of the vertebral column and a certain angle of the pelvis (40-45o) contribute to the uniform distribution of the body's gravity and muscle traction, cartilage intervertebral discs absorb shocks during movements and provide mobility of the spine; the mutual location of internal organs and their attachment are also adapted more to the vertical position. In this position, the person has favorable conditions for visual vision, movement and sensorimotor coordination. A normal standing position can be considered one in which a person does not need to lean forward more than 15o, and should avoid long-term fixed poses when standing.

If a person wants to move with minimal energy consumption, they must change ("switch") the load or speed from one muscle group to another in accordance with changing conditions and their own condition.

  1. Optimization of movements

When considering actions in hand-to-hand combat, the following rules of movement economy must be considered:

- when working with two hands, their movements should be as simultaneous as possible, symmetrical and opposite in direction. Simultaneous and symmetrical movements ensure the balance of the entire body, which makes it easier to perform actions;

- movements should be simple, smooth and rounded. To perform a working operation, you must use the least number of movements;

- the trajectory of working movements should not go beyond the zones of optimal and easy reach;

- movements should correspond to the anatomical structure of the body and be carried out as far as possible in the area of visual control. Each movement must end in a position convenient for the beginning of the next movement, and the subsequent and previous movements must be smoothly connected to each other;

- movements should be not only simple, but also rhythmic. Do not allow too slow or too fast rhythms. At the same time, it should be borne in mind that the so-called "non-rhythmic" movements are not movements without rhythm, but movements either with deviations from a given rhythm, or irrational movements, which is reflected in the rhythm;

- it is necessary to create conditions in which small muscle groups are used to overcome weak resistances, and in the presence of significant obstacles, large muscle groups are activated;

- in order to reduce muscle work to the maximum extent possible, the kinetic energy of the object of work should be used.

To ensure rational working movements from the motor action, it is necessary to exclude unnecessary ineffective and tedious movements that cause premature fatigue and choose from all possible movements the shortest along the trajectory and requiring minimal effort.

When preparing for hand-to-hand combat, you should take into account certain rules and regulations related to the speed and accuracy of movements and the economy of effort due to the physiological, psychological and anatomical features of a person.

Movement speed:

- where a quick reaction is required, moving towards yourself is preferable;

- in the horizontal plane, the speed of the hands is faster than in the vertical direction, the highest speed of movements from top to bottom, the lowest from itself-from bottom to top;

- the speed of movement from left to right for the right hand is greater than in the opposite direction;

- the speed of movement of the right hand is greater than the left;

- the speed of movement at an angle to the vertical and horizontal planes is less than in these planes;

- rotational movements are faster than translational;

- smooth curved movements of the hands and feet are faster than straight ones with a sudden change in direction;

- the speed of movement decreases with increasing load;

- movements with one hand are performed at the highest speed at an angle of 60o to the plane of symmetry, with two hands-at an angle of 30 degrees;

- the maximum rate of rotational movements-4.0-4.8. rpm, pressing movements for the leading hand - 6.6 presses in 1s. , for non-leading - 5.3 presses in 1s.. The maximum rate of percussive movements is from 5 to 14 beats/s. the optimal rate for long - term work is 3.5-5.0 beats/s.

Movement accuracy:

- the greatest accuracy of movements is achieved in the horizontal plane in the zone located at a distance of 15-35 cm from the midline of the body, with the amplitude of movement in the elbow joint 50-60 degrees;

- the accuracy of hitting a given point with your hand is 15-20 cm in the middle zone below the chest and 30-40 cm in the extreme zones;

- when working blindly in the horizontal plane, short distances are exaggerated by the person, and long distances are minimized, in the vertical plane-exaggerated;

- movements with an amplitude of 8-12 cm are most accurately estimated;

- spatial accuracy of movements with a small load (up to 25% of the maximum effort) is the best, with significant effort is reduced;

- for rotational movements, the best accuracy is at a speed of 140-200 rpm. for percussive movements-60-70 movements per minute.

Save effort:

- the force developed by the hand depends on its position: the pressure and pull are stronger when moving the hand in front of the body than when moving from the side;

- if both hands are used, it should be noted that the strength of the right hand is greater than in the left, by 10% for the flexors of the fingers and by 3-4% for the flexors and extensors of the forearm;

- maximum effort in the standing position is developed at the shoulder level, in the sitting position-at the elbow level;

- the greatest force in the standing position is developed by moving on yourself;

- the pressure force is greater when the arm is bent than when the arm is extended;

- the horizontal pull force is greater when moving in front of you than when moving sideways;

- in the standing position, the pressure is stronger than the thrust;

- the strength of the forearm flexors is greater when the arm is bent than when the arm is extended;

- the force of rotation of the hand depends on its position and direction of rotation - when turning inwards, a more significant force develops than when moving backwards.

In addition, it is revealed that movements are organized not only spatially, but also musically, obeying a certain rhythm. It is noteworthy that the circular (arc) line to a greater extent ensures the continuity of the rhythm and subordination of movement to a certain rhythmic structure. Therefore, in certain cases, not the fastest movement is the most rational, and not the shortest movement is also the most rational.

  1. Rhythm and human activity

Rhythm is a cardinal property of nature, a form of movement of matter. In our country, the pioneer of chronobiology was the Leningrad physiologist N. ya. Perna. He revealed the rhythmic structure of a person's psychoemotional life and showed the importance of biorhythms for creative activity.

I. Vernadsky, the founder of the biosphere doctrine, emphasized the” universal " rhythmics - from atoms to galaxies. The founder of heliobiology V. L. Chigievsky also believed that every atom of life resonates to the corresponding vibrations in nature.

The rhythm is universal and manifests itself at all levels of the organization of the biosphere. However, the nature of the manifestation of the basic properties of life (metabolism, energy, information) at any level has qualitative features and its own ordering. Therefore, in the course of evolution, a certain structure of interaction of systems of various kinds and ranks between themselves and the external environment in time and space was established.

The idea of levels of organization of life is directly related to the understanding of biological rhythms. The system approach allows us to look at the body and its biorhythms as a single, but at the same time very complex hierarchical mechanism, where all the parts are subtly “adjusted” to each other and interact with the environment.

Biological rhythm is a uniform alternation of various States of the body, biological processes or phenomena in time. But not every recurring phenomenon can be called a biorhythm. Biorhythm is a self-sustaining and, to a certain extent, Autonomous process.

The rhythmicity of the body's work is closely related to fluctuations in energy processes, and this property is inherent in both plants and animals. Hence the universality of the rhythm of the living, its predictive orientation.
Biorhythmology is closely linked with the physiology of work and ergonomics. Even in ancient times, people understood the importance of rhythmic organization of labor. When building the pyramids, the Egyptians subordinated their movements to the musical rhythm. Labor and song were inseparable in Russia.

Modern life is characterized by rapid mechanization of many labor processes, automation of labor-intensive and complex production operations, etc. As the technical equipment of production increases, its effect and the value of each working minute sharply increase; with this in mind, the scientific organization of labor is built, which is impossible without chronobiological research.

This applies to both manual operations and working with automatic machines. L. N. Tolstoy in the novel “Anna Karenina” described Levin's state during mowing: “more and more often came those moments of unconsciousness when you could not think about what you were doing. The scythe cut of itself.... In the middle of his work, there were moments during which he forgot what he was doing, it became easy for him, and at the same time his row was smooth and good… But as soon as he remembered what he was doing, and began to try to do better, he immediately experienced all the hard work, and the row turned out bad.”

All this indicates the economic feasibility of connecting the subconscious rhythmic organization of movements. In turn, this is important for us when preparing a soldier for hand-to-hand combat, when developing the ability to feel their own rhythm and the rhythm of the enemy's movement, the ability to adapt to someone else's rhythm and, ultimately, manage it.

The execution of each motor operation can be fast or slow. In the first case, the person is more likely to get tired, and with less tension, the ergonomics of his movements increases. An increase in the rate of movement even by 5% may not have any negative consequences for the body, but if the uniformity of movement changes by at least a few percent, it will immediately affect the state of the person performing these actions. The character of the movements must be improved until the best rhythm is found.

The time factor plays a dominant role in any business, including hand-to-hand combat. Any savings are primarily reduced to saving time. Whatever you do, the time of work is important, its rhythm and pace are important, because they immediately affect the results of this work.

The ability to estimate time depends on the correctness of planned actions, load distribution, the order of actions and the prediction of possible results.

When preparing for hand-to-hand combat, you need to learn to better navigate in time, perceive signals and respond to them faster.

In ergonomics, information about biological rhythms is also needed to justify and improve production processes. They reveal some aspects of human behavior in the work environment, its actions in the “man-machine " system. Accounting for biorhythms is necessary when optimizing work in the conditions of artificial imposition of other people's rhythms.

The inclusion of biorhythmological data in the methodology of physical culture and education, in coaching and sports medicine is one of the important links to increase the reliability of achievements, in particular, sports. To overcome the difference in a fraction of a second, one desire to win is not enough, you need the appropriate state of the body at any given moment. Of course, it is achieved primarily by training. But the effectiveness of the skills and abilities developed in these trainings at the right time depends on the ability of the specialist to feel and use the biorhythmological wave, its phases, rise (crest) or decline.

In addition, you must take into account the time of day. It is known that in the evening increases flexibility and even slightly reduces the growth of a person. The maximum excitability and the highest muscular strength, as well as the ability to regulate breathing most effectively, differ between 11-12 and 16-18 hours, the minimums of these functions are observed around 8.10 and 14 hours. The time from 10 to 12 and from 17 to 19 hours in most cases coincides with natural rises in performance. All this is just necessary to know for those who are engaged in hand-to-hand combat in order to correctly allocate training time, energy consumption for them, as well as to know what pain zones and points and when to influence during the melee.

What are the energy bases of biorhythms of physical fitness of the body? The energy supplier in a living organism is glucose and its polymer-glycogen, animal sugar. As a result of glucose oxidation, carbon dioxide and water are formed and energy is released, due to which muscle activity and other energy processes in the body are carried out. Free energy as a result of the “combustion” of glucose in the cell furnace is stored in a special chemical form of ATP – adenosine triphosphate molecules. At the first request, ATP immediately gives the muscles the necessary energy.

With short-term physical exertion, for example when striking, the energy stored by ATP is sufficient, but with long – term physical exertion, the processes of glucose-glycogen oxidation are accelerated. In the first half of the day, the liver consumes its stored carbohydrate-glycogen, the body converts it into simple sugars – the main source of energy for our body. Glycogen and sugars are quickly included in the oxidation cycle, releasing a lot of energy, and do not require additional costs for energy exchange processes. Therefore, in the first half of the day, we can immediately get involved in work and perform a significant physical and mental load in a short time.

In the second half of the day, the liver begins to work for the future, its cells increase in volume sometimes by 2-3 times. The creation of energy resources continues at the beginning of the night. Therefore, the maximum glycogen in the liver is at 3 am. At 9 o'clock in the morning, when we start working, the blood receives the largest amount of sugar, so that it can be burned in the muscle cells as quickly as possible.

After lunch, the blood is dominated by fat. These energy suppliers burn slowly, but they provide a large amount of work. From this it follows that in the afternoon it is advisable to perform work that requires a fair amount of energy (but not emergency execution).

The laying of energy reserves occurs mainly at night, and in the beginning increases the supply of glycogen, and then fat. The order of their expenditure also has its own daily features. In the evening, a person is usually more prepared for prolonged physical activity, and in the morning it is easier to perform short-term efforts. There is a direct dependence of the state of the body on the time of day. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the time of day both when conducting hand-to-hand combat, and during the preparation for it.

However, the human body and its energy systems are sufficiently labile to change their energy state under certain conditions, for example, when changing the time of training or emotional uplift.

In modern sports, to improve the condition of an athlete, autogenic training is often used, based on the suggestion of certain tasks to the body (as a rule, relaxation, calming, relieving tension, or, conversely, taking a record, etc.). this psychomuscular training is usually performed during the transition from sleep to wakefulness and back, i.e. in the transitional phases of the daily rhythm. With that in mind, to greatly accelerate relaxation and revitalization of body boxers improve their sports uniforms Leonid Kupriyanovich from the Institute of hygiene and occupational diseases Academy of medical Sciences of Russia used the rhythmic effects of different physical factors (current, light, sound).

However, a real athlete, taking into account biorhythms, works at the limit of human capabilities, and our task is to learn how to use biorhythms to achieve victory over the enemy at optimal energy costs.
Speaking of biorhythms, it is impossible not to say about their connection with art. Plato believed that rhythm and harmony especially touch the soul, Aristotle also linked rhythm and the emotional state of a person, noting that rhythm and melody contain a display of anger and meekness, courage and moderation, as well as other moral qualities. All types of arts, including martial arts, with their rhythmic structures affect the mental state, impress, cause certain emotions and create the appropriate mood, thereby stimulating the development of creative abilities of a person.

Musical rhythm is the proportionality of sounds in time, characterized by their special harmony and sequence of alternation.

We understand music as a special rhythmic organization, which is characterized by euphony and expressiveness. It is thanks to rhythmic techniques that the pattern of music changes and certain musical images are created.

Music is a truly rhythmic stimulus. With the help of music, you can purposefully influence the public well-being, the mood of a person or groups of people, and their health.

Marching music, especially military music, is set up to raise morale. The rhythms of the funeral March sound very different. The rhythms of lullabies are sharply different from them.

Thanks to the special rhythmic structures of the melody, we can also distinguish the national character of music. Using music in hand-to-hand combat classes helps to speed up the learning process, correctly distribute the physical load of students, set up for processing various training questions, and so on.

Dance is an ancient art form. To the sound of sticks and drumming, primitive people performed rhythmic movements of the head, body, legs and arms. Using the coincidence of internal vibrations of your body with the rhythm of music or singing and dancing, our ancestors could " enter” into a state of combat trance, perform various movements at high speed (work at super speeds), lower or increase the threshold of sensitivity.

The poetic rhythm is also close to the musical rhythm. But we are interested in the rhythms of art not in themselves, but in connection with the psychophysiological rhythms of work and life.

Labor rhythms arose in the process of conscious and active contact of man with nature. People adapted to the cycles of the environment, to the rhythms of their own body, in order to be less tired. The great Goethe said that rhythm strengthens a person's connection with reality.

“I don't know if the rhythm exists outside of me or only in me, most likely in me. But for it to Wake up, there must be a push – so from an unknown creak begins to hum in the belly of the piano, so, threatening to collapse, the bridge swings from the simultaneous ant step." - V. Mayakovsky argues.

The essence of rhythm is the order in time of various forms of movement.

The researchers claim that the rhythm is very different in terms of human perception of it. It can be lifeless monotonous, but it can also be a signal for the most subtle experiences, a stimulus for emotional reactions, and one of the organizing moments of the creative process. Sometimes the rhythm disturbance is perceived by us extremely acutely, which indicates a deep connection of the psychoemotional structure of the individual with the rhythm of the environment.

N. Perna in his research on biorhythms proceeded from the fact that rhythmicity is inherent in all life phenomena without exception, including human mental activity, which can be considered as a series of parallel wave-like processes that often do not coincide with each other. He first expressed the idea of the connection of the sense of time with biorhythms and the dependence of the flow of terrestrial (”world") time and cosmic rhythms.

The famous psychologist and psychotherapist V. L. Levi advises: "Imbue yourself with the idea of the naturalness of fluctuations in volitional tone…Catch a good time and give your best… Perhaps your rhythms will change when you can calculate and manage them.”

Thus, the following conclusions can be drawn:

  1. Knowledge of ergonomics is necessary for the qualitative study of the discipline "hand-To-hand combat".
  2. In order to teach the trainee to efficiently produce energy consumption in the Republic of Belarus, the classes on hand-to-hand combat must take into account the ergonometric parameters of the system.
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