Psychological orientation

Let's focus on the psychological assessment of a person based on external manifestations and behavioral features

Observation is one of the most common methods of psychological research.

This is a purposeful perception of the subject in order to determine its psychological characteristics, as well as its current state and predict its possible behavior.

So, for example, asthenik (from the Greek. Asthenikos – weak, painful) – a constitutional type of person with such body features as thinness, a long neck, a longitudinally elongated skull, a narrow, clearly defined face. In terms of mental properties, asthenics are characterized by increased sensitivity and coldness, reduced sociability, a tendency to introversion, and high anxiety. Athletic type of person – athletic – (from Greek. – athletes – wrestler – a constitutional type of person who is characterized by a strong physique, developed muscles, endurance, perseverance, usually self-confidence, competitiveness, determination, a developed strong – willed component, sometimes – aggressiveness. The picnic type is characterized by an average height, a dense figure, a soft broad face on a short neck, a solid fat belly in combination with specific mental characteristics. According to the mental characteristics of picnics can be divided into subgroups: chatty-funny; calm humorists; quiet, soulful people; carefree lovers of life; energetic practitioners.

No less important in observation are the so-called actual psychological States of a person, namely fear, joy, anger, excitement, doubt, etc. They can be expressed both in the features of speech (verbally) and in the direct behavior of a person. Nonverbal communication includes forms of self-expression that do not rely on words or other speech symbols. Its value lies, in particular, in the fact that it is spontaneous and manifests itself unconsciously.

Facial expression is the main indicator of feelings. Emphasizing a certain connection between the internal, psychological content of the individual and external, morphological features of the structure of the face, it should be remembered that the face of any person is not something frozen, but represents a whole range of different movements, which is expressed in facial expressions.

For example, a fully raised head indicates self-confidence, self-awareness, complete openness, and attention to the world around you. An emphatically raised head reveals a lack of intimacy, self-exaltation, or arrogance. Throwing your head back shows a great desire for activity, a challenge. And, on the contrary, the head tilted to one side indicates the rejection of their own activity, full openness to the interlocutor, the desire to meet up to the point of submission. A relaxed head hanging down is a sign of a General lack of readiness for tension, lack of will.

A smile is a facial expression that has multiple communication functions. It usually expresses friendliness, but excessive smiling often reflects the need for approval. A strained smile in an unpleasant situation betrays feelings of apology and concern. A smile, accompanied by raised eyebrows, expresses a willingness to obey. Pulled down the corners of the mouth symbolize a generally negative attitude to life, a General sad expression on the face. The raised corners of the mouth reflect a positive attitude to life, a lively and cheerful expression on the face. If the mouth looks puffy, it indicates increased vitality feelings; soft – on sensitivity; sharp, precision cut – intellectuals; hard – on certainty will.

The impression of sincerity or pretence of a smile occurs depending on the speed with which the corners of the mouth rise, and on the simultaneous expansion of the eyes, followed by a brief shift of the eyelids. The researcher emphasizes that too long expansion of the eyes without their short-term closing, combined with a smile, is considered a threat. On the contrary, briefly closing the eyes is a calming element of facial expressions. The smiling person makes it clear: "I don't expect anything bad from you, see, I even close my eyes."

The "language of view" is very diverse. Thus, fully open eyes are characterized by a high sensitivity of the senses and mind, General liveliness. Too wide open," bulging " eyes indicate an increased optical attachment to the world around them. Closed," curtained " eyes are often a sign of inertia, indifference, arrogance, boredom or severe fatigue. A narrowed or narrowed gaze means either concentrated close attention, observation, or, in combination with a side view, cunning, cunning. A direct look, with the face completely turned to the partner, demonstrates interest, trust, openness, and readiness for direct interaction. A sideways glance from the corners of the eyes indicates a lack of full commitment, skepticism, and distrust. A look from below, with a bowed head, indicates either aggressive readiness for action, or, with a bent back, subordination, submission, and helpfulness. Looking down, with the head thrown back, reveals a sense of superiority, arrogance, contempt, the search for dominance. An evasive look indicates uncertainty, modesty or timidity, perhaps guilt. An aggressive-hard person usually looks straight into the eyes, opening his eyes wide; his lips are firmly compressed, his brows are furrowed, and he talks through his teeth, almost without moving his lips. A soft, compliant person looks out from under his closed eyelids, can't stand the stare.

In the process of communication, the interlocutors look into each other's eyes, on average, from 30 to 60% of the time. Analysis of the interlocutor's view can provide additional information about the psychological state.

There are the following types of looks: straight; through contact; a pivoted (centered); aimless; fixed on anything, not on companion or a partner; by a partner; lower; side; sidelong; sideways over the shoulder; top-down; evader; intimate; enchanted; business; sebaceous; lively; sluggish; restless; a measure (look from top to toe); aggressive-insult; penetrating; drunk; controlling; cool.

A direct view is accompanied by openness and readiness to communicate, as well as truthfulness of statements. A person with a direct view is confident in himself, aware of his powers and capabilities. Direct looks from partners in conversation, along with alternating eye-to-eye contact, illustrate mutual trust in each other, respect, and free discussion of the most pressing problems, negative and risky topics.  In addition to a direct look, there is only one place for open communication interlocutors – a reduced (centered) look. It appears in partners when a specific, urgent situation needs to be discussed in the conversation. The partners seem to see it in front of them. The pupils shift slightly from the center to each other and freeze in this position.

An aimless look illustrates reflection, thoughtfulness, and self-absorption.

A look fixed on anything but the other person illustrates disinterest in communication, disrespect for the partner, and an attempt to avoid the problems discussed.

The view from below, when a person's head is bent and the pupils synchronously and forcibly rise up from the center, illustrates the following behaviors of its owner:

  1. submissive, stressed attention, helpfulness – if the back is bent and there is a slight tension in the body;
  2. secrecy, calculating, dosed information delivery in a conversation – if the tension in the body is more pronounced and vertical folds are visible on the forehead;
  3. hostile closeness, readiness for aggression – if the tension in the entire body, "nabychennaya", tense head, tense and compressed mouth.

A side view, in which the pupils move synchronously to the right or left, illustrates a skeptical, negative attitude to the interlocutor, closeness, distrust, criticism. If the eyes are wide open, the person tries to hide their fear. If the forehead of a person at this moment has horizontal folds, and the pupils are narrowed and the eyes are narrowed, then this is a person who is ready for aggressive actions ("cocked gun").

A sideways glance illustrates an attempt to control the situation, tracking the other person's reaction to their words.

A sideways glance over his shoulder shows a closeness to the other person while simultaneously disdaining them.

Looking down is accompanied by throwing your head back – the person unconsciously increases the distance between themselves and the interlocutor. His pupils move down from the Central position-an illustration of arrogance, pride. Others always perceive it as a demonstration of superiority, which, of course, does not contribute to communication.

An evasive look is an illustration of uncertainty, fear, guilt, or timidity. Pupils constantly "run away" from the Central position.

An appraising look (from the top of the head to the heels) is often found when people first meet. The pupils make successive movements from the center up and from the center down. Usually this view is allowed by the person who manages the situation: they are more interested in it than they are.

A lively, restless look is an illustration of interest in the conversation, waiting for the main topic to be discussed. Pupil movements are rapid, in all areas.

A listless look is typical for phlegmatics. An illustration of calmness, full knowledge of the issue under discussion, boredom. It is typical for a person in a state of full sleepiness, up to a waking dream.

Aggressive and insulting look-a demonstration of their own strength, readiness to "crush" the interlocutor. Usually accompanied by a contemptuous grimace or a complete lack of facial expressions on the face, which is more dangerous.
Piercing look – people say "how cold it was". A peculiar view of the investigator, the Prosecutor, the person who has the power or has the right to demand a report, even to accuse in this situation.

The controlling gaze is present during an extremely important or intense conversation. the person tracks the slightest bodily manifestations and actions of the partner, catches every word of his or her words. The motto of this state is "I will see everything, hear everything – I will not miss anything"

The drunk opinion – typical of the mental patients and people in a condition of alcoholic intoxication. The non-stop movement of the eyes, which run in all directions, is occasionally interrupted by stops caused by the desire to grasp the thread of the conversation, the situation.

A cold look – a person contemplates the surrounding environment without emotion.   For him, the environment is nothing more than a boring theatrical action with bad actors.

The greasy look is the groping look of a libertine. It can be brusque, or it can be sent stealthily.

A charmed gaze is the gaze of a person who is at the peak of emotional, religious, or other ecstasy.

Eyes openly speak about the inner experiences of a person, no wonder experienced "players" try to hide their expression behind the glasses of dark glasses.

People are usually given out:

* any changes in the normal expression of the eyes-the appearance of a certain emotion, a signal to respond to a stimulus;

* involuntary eye movements (noticeably "shifty eyes") – anxiety, shame, deception, fear, neurasthenia;

* brilliant look-fever, excitement;

* glassy eyes – extreme weakness;

* pupil enlargement-feeling interested and enjoying information, communication, photography, partner, food, music, and other external factors, accepting something, but also suffering greatly;

* use of certain medications and drugs (marijuana, cocaine);

* constriction of pupils – rolling of irritation, anger, hatred and similar negative emotions, rejection of something; the effect of certain drugs (morphine, heroin);

* erratic pupil movements-a sign of intoxication (the more such movements, the more drunk a person is);

* enhanced blinking – arousal, deception.

People always prefer to look at people they clearly admire, or those with whom they have a close relationship at close range; women show more visual interest than men.

In the course of communication, it is more common to look the partner in the eye when listening, rather than when speaking, although, when performing suggestion, sometimes use a direct look in the eyes at the moment of uttering the dialogue.

The subject who looks you in the eye much less one third of the entire period of communication is either not honest or trying to hide something; he who is undisguised hard stares in his eyes, feels for you increased interest (dilated pupils), show outright hostility (small pupils) or seeks to dominate.

Eye contact modifications have the following interpretation:

* "absent gaze" – focused thinking;

* shifting your gaze to the surrounding objects and to the ceiling-a drop in interest in the conversation, an unnecessarily long monologue partner;

* persistent and intense gaze in the eyes (pupils are narrowed) – a sign of hostility and a clear desire to dominate;

* persistent and intense gaze in the eyes (pupils dilated) – a sign of sexual interest;

* averting and lowering the gaze-shame, deception; – side view-distrust;

* the gaze is turned away, then returns back-lack of agreement, distrust.

Gait

The following gait features should be noted:

  • a quick walk with waving hands indicates energy, determination, determination;
  • slow gait with downcast eyes, barely dragging his feet-indicates a depressed state, depression;
  • the intense movement of the hands is emphasized, the chin is raised, the legs are as if made of wood, the gait is forced, calculated to make an impression, all this indicates the self-satisfaction, demonstrativeness, pomposity inherent in this individual;
  • rapid gait, hands on hips-correspond to bursts of energy, the desire to achieve their goals in the shortest way in the shortest time;
  • a very slow walk in a pose with your head down, hands clasped behind your back, and a thoughtful expression on your face indicates that you are concerned about solving a problem.

There are several types of gait:

  • rhythmic-relaxed form of high, but balanced mood, typical for walkers;
  • uniform / by the type of army marching step/ – strong-willed activity or striving for a goal;
  • the wide steps – often extraversion, commitment, entrepreneurial spirit, ease abstracting thinking;
  • short, small steps – more often introversion, caution calculation, quick thinking and reaction, restraint, type of thinking, rather specific;
  • rhythmically strong / with enhanced hip movements/ – naively instinctive and self-confident natures, swaying shoulders in resonance – mostly spectacular, narcissistic individuals;
  • shuffling, "sagging" – rejection of volitional effort, and aspirations, lethargy, slowness, laziness;
  • hard, angular, "stilted", "wooden" – tightness, lack of contacts, timidity, inability to freely manifest.
  • constant lifting on the tense toes-the desire to go up, driven by a strong need for a sense of superiority, especially intellectual.

In communication between people, body language, as phylogenetically older, acquires a qualitative significance. It is easy to judge the state of a person's inner world by their body language.

A person who is in control of the situation does not care much about the inviolability of the borders of "their territory". It does not require protection in the form of various covers-tables, chairs, folders, briefcases.

People who are not sure of themselves tend to expand their territory. When sitting, they expand their personal space with their legs outstretched or their arms spread out on the backs of neighboring chairs, and use various objects for this purpose. They stand with their legs spread wide, their arms outstretched on the backs of chairs, columns, walls, door jambs, or just put their hands on their hips. People who overestimate the importance of the partner's status themselves expand the boundaries of their territory, keeping away from it, at a respectful distance.

Pantomimics of the subject matter: posture, posture, gestures, automated elementary (tics) and generalized (flinching, etc.) motor reactions, General motor activity. Hunched posture, lowered head, frozen facial expressions-most often indicate a depressive state. A proud bearing, a raised chin, a look of haughtiness-indicate the self-satisfaction and ambition of a person. If this posture is combined with the decoration of symbolic signs, it may indicate that the individual has delusional ideas of self-aggrandizement. Arms crossed on the chest indicate, as a rule, the defensive position of the person. The crossed position of the arms may not be related to the position of protection, but may be an element of a comfortable posture. In this case, the hands are relaxed. The combination of arms crossed over the chest with clenched fists or tense fingers definitely indicates a defensive posture. The defensive position is strengthened by the crossed position of the legs. If a person shakes his head in a sitting position "leg on leg", this usually indicates that he is bored with the situation.

The absence of a defensive position is indicated by: relaxed hands, unbuttoned jacket (jacket, etc.), body tilt in the direction of the interlocutor. Interested attention is indicated by a slight tilt of the head, a glance directed at the interlocutor. When a person loses interest, the position of the head straightens, the shoulders first rise, then fall, the gaze begins to wander around, often the body of the interlocutor takes the orientation towards the exit from the room.

A demonstrative expression of boredom is complete indifference, a "head in hand" gesture, i.e. the head is lying on the palm of the hand, the eyes are half-closed. The "hand on cheek" gesture, the Rodin "Thinker" pose, usually indicates a state of thinking about something. Gestures: rubbing the chin during a conversation, removing glasses and carefully wiping their glasses, grabbing the nose in a loosely compressed handful, combined with covering the eyes – indicate a complex process of reflection (evaluation), a great concentration on the decision being made. Touching the nose or lightly rubbing it, usually with the index finger, expresses doubt or difficulty. In some individuals, the equivalent value is the gestures of touching the earlobe, rubbing the eyes. If the interlocutor rests his chin on his hand, while the index finger is stretched along the cheek (along the nasolabial fold), and the rest are located below the mouth, this usually indicates a critical approach to the partner's words. If this gesture is accompanied by a tilt of the body from the partner, the evaluation tone is clearly negative.

A set of gestures of negative evaluation: folded arms, bending the body back, crossed legs, turning the face to the side ("nose turns up") or tilting the head forward, a look from under the brows (a look "over the glasses") – a signal of the ineffectiveness of the chosen tactics of conversation. In this case, it is preferable to abandon the "frontal attack" and leave the "sick" questions until a more favorable moment, to move the conversation in a different direction to reduce the tension of the interlocutor.

If a person tries not to look at the other person, then most likely they are hiding something. This is also indicated by the gesture "hand (often left) covers the mouth" after the remark, as if the person wanted to stop his speech, but the words have already left his lips. The fact that a person hides their intentions can be evidenced by the pose when the elbows are placed on the table, forming a pyramid, the top of which is the hands located directly in front of the mouth.
On the contrary, if the fingers of the hands are connected like a dome (the fingers of the same name touch the tips of each other), it means trust and self-confidence. The hands can be connected in this way at different levels. Women usually connect their fingers at the knees (sitting) or just above the waist (standing). People in positions of leadership tend to hold their hands higher the higher their rank. The milder form of this gesture-the fingers overlap (the fingers of one hand cover the fingers of the other hand), usually also means trust.

The "hands clasping each other" gesture (the hands cover each other, the fingers are tense) is observed when a person is in a difficult situation, for example, has to answer a question containing a serious accusation against him. Hands clasped together, fingers intertwined, a gesture of suspicion and disbelief. If your thumbs start massaging each other when your hands are locked together, this indicates a need for increased confidence, a tendency to reinsurance. For women, a typical gesture of need to increase their confidence is a slow and graceful raising of the hand to the neck. If the necklace is worn, the hand touches it, as if checking whether it is in place. A similar or more energetic movement in a man at the final stage is masked by the hand stroking the neck or adjusting the back of the shirt collar ("hot under the collar"). This gesture is associated with a sense of relief after the danger has passed, with the resolution of an unpleasant situation.

The "hands on hips" position (standing) or "one hand resting on the knee with the forearm, the other with the palm" position (sitting) indicates readiness for action: completing a task, completing a conversation, making a decision.

There are several ways to land a person:

- closed / legs and feet closed/ – fear of contact, lack of self-confidence;

- carefree-open /legs or hips wide apart/ – lack of discipline, laziness, indifference-primitive brusqueness;

- the legs are closed one after the other-natural self-confidence, complacent mood, no readiness for activity or protection;

- sitting on the edge of a chair, with your back straight – a high degree of interest in the subject of conversation;

- landing with a constant readiness to jump up /for example, one foot-under the seat stands completely, the other-behind it on the toe/ – typical for insecure-fearful or angry-distrustful natures.

According to psychologists, people who walk quickly, waving their arms, have a clear goal and are ready to implement it immediately, and people who usually keep their hands in their pockets are likely to be critical and secretive, they really like to suppress others.

Those who are in a depressed state of mind also often keep their hands in their pockets when walking, drag their feet, and rarely look up or in the direction they are going.

Thus, the nature of the relationship, as well as some personal characteristics may not be reflected in the posture, landing, gait, or other, typical for this person pose.

Arrogant people throw their bodies back, push their chests out and throw their heads up – modest people try to be invisible, so they stoop, pull their head into their shoulders, which are slightly raised. The typical sycophant leans the entire body forward, while fixing his gaze on the interlocutor and smiling broadly, obsequiously.

Determining a person's character by their appearance is certainly not an easy task. It is always necessary to keep in mind that some people try to disguise their inner content with an external game. However, some information about individual psychological characteristics of a person's personality and behavior is still contained in typical postures.

Possible bindings of body positions to a person's mental state are as follows:

* hands behind your back, head held high, chin exposed-a sense of self-confidence and superiority over others;

* the body is pushed forward, hands (akimbo) on the hips-self-confidence and readiness for active action, aggressiveness, agitation when talking, the desire to defend your position to the end;

* standing with your hands on a table or chair-feeling incomplete contact with your partner;

* hands with elbows placed behind the head-awareness of superiority over others;

* putting your thumbs in your belt or pocket slots is a sign of aggression and self-confidence;

* sticking your thumbs out of your pockets is a sign of excellence;

* crossed limbs – a skeptical protective setup;

* uncrossed limbs and unbuttoned jacket – establishing trust;

* tilt your head to the side-arouse interest;

* head tilt down – negative attitude;

* slight tilt of the head back-a sign of aggressiveness;

* sitting on the tip of a chair-ready to jump up at any moment to: either leave, or act in the current situation, or calm the accumulated excitement, or attract attention and connect to the conversation;

* crossing your legs with your arms crossed on your chest-a sign of "disconnecting" from the conversation;

* throwing your foot on the arm of the chair (sitting on it) – disdain for others, loss of interest in the conversation;

* crossed ankles in the sitter – containing disapproval, fear or agitation, attempt at self-control, negative defensive state;

* position (sitting or standing) with the legs oriented towards the exit – a clear desire to stop the conversation and leave;

* frequent change of posture, fidgeting in the chair, fussiness-internal anxiety, tension;

* getting up-a signal that a certain decision has been made, the conversation is boring, something surprised or shocked;

* clutching of the fingers – frustration and the desire to hide a negative attitude (the higher the hands are located, the stronger the negative);

* the hands are connected with the tips of the fingers, but the palms do not touch – a sign of superiority and confidence in yourself and in your words;

* hands rest their elbows on the table, and their hands are positioned-in front of the mouth-hiding their true intentions, playing cat and mouse with a partner;

* supporting the head with the palm of your hand is boring;

* fingers clenched into a fist are located under the cheek, but do not serve to support the head – a sign of interest;

* propping your chin with your thumb is a sign of some critical assessment;

* clutching your glass with both hands – disguised nervousness;

* blowing cigarette smoke up – positive attitude, self-confidence;

* releasing cigarette smoke down – negative attitude, with hidden or suspicious thoughts.

Gestures and body movements

"A gesture is not a movement of the body, but a movement of the soul." It tells about the person's desire and what he is experiencing at this moment, and a familiar gesture for someone indicates a trait of his character.

Outwardly identical gestures in different people can mean completely different things, but there are also identical moments:

* active gestures – a frequent component of positive emotions, understood by others as showing friendliness and interest;

* excessive gestures are a sign of anxiety or uncertainty.

When determining the thoughts and emotions of an individual, only involuntary gestures should be noted:

* demonstration of open palms-an indicator of frankness;

* clenching fists – internal excitement, aggressiveness (the more fingers are clenched, the stronger the emotion itself);

* covering your mouth with your hand (or a glass in your hand) at the moment of speech-surprise, uncertainty in what is being said, lies, confidential message, professional insurance against lip reading;

* touching the nose or lightly scratching it – uncertainty about what is being reported (both by yourself and your partner), lying, searching for a new counterargument during the discussion;

* rubbing the eyelid with your finger is a lie, but sometimes it is a feeling of suspicion and lies on the part of the partner;

* rubbing and scratching various parts of the head (forehead, cheeks, nape, ear) – concern, confusion, uncertainty;

* stroking the chin – the moment of making a decision;

* restlessness of the hands (terebene anything, the twisting and untwisting of the pen, the starting pieces of clothing) – apprehension, nervousness, embarrassment;

* itchy palms – a readiness for aggression;

* nail biting – internal anxiety;

* various movements of the hand across the body (adjust the watch, touch the cufflink, play with the button on the cuff) – masked nervousness;

* picking up "lint" from the clothes – a gesture of disapproval;

* pulling away from the neck of a clearly interfering collar – a person suspects that others have recognized his deception, lack of air when angry;

* wiping glasses or putting the shackle of their frames in your mouth-pause for thought, please wait;

* removing points and throwing them on the table is an overly sharp conversation, a difficult and unpleasant topic;

* quenching or postponing a cigarette – the period of maximum tension;

* too frequent knocking of ash from a cigarette – a painful internal state, nervousness;

* tilt your head to the side-arouse interest;

* a quick tilt or turn of the head to the side-the desire to speak out;

* constant dropping of allegedly "interfering" hair from the forehead-anxiety;

* a clear desire to lean on something or lean against something a sense of the complexity and unpleasantness of the moment, a lack of understanding of how to get out of the situation (any support increases self-confidence).

The assessment of General motor activity has a certain diagnostic value. High motor activity, reaching the level of motor disinhibition, is characteristic of individuals with a predominance of hyperthymic character traits. Individuals of the schizoid type are distinguished by stiffness of movements, freezing in certain phases of movements, motor stereotypes, ritual movements and automatism. Individuals of the epileptoid type are characterized by a certain contrast in psychomotorics: slowness, heaviness, poor switching of movements and at the same time, impulsivity, a tendency to violent motor discharges. People who are in a state of depression are characterized by sluggish slow movements.
Important information that reflects the condition and properties of the subject is carried by the features of the voice and speech: the strength and timbre of the voice, intonation, pace of speech, smoothness. Excitement, anger, and delight are caused by the amplification and raising of the tone of the voice. Uncertainty, doubts lead to slowing down speech, stretching words. Surprise and fright are accompanied by involuntary exclamations. Excitement, fear causes trembling of the voice, increased stuttering.

Here are some characteristics of the human voice:

- speed of speech: a lively, brisk manner of speaking, a fast pace indicate the impulsiveness of the interlocutor, his confidence, a calm, slow manner indicates equanimity, reasonableness, thoroughness; noticeable fluctuations in the speed of speech reveal a lack of balance, uncertainty, easy excitability;

- volume: a strong voice is usually inherent in the true force of motivation /vitality/ or arrogance; a quiet, weak voice indicates restraint, modesty, tact or lack of vitality, weakness of the person; sudden changes in volume indicate emotion and excitement;

- articulation: clear and precise pronunciation indicates internal discipline, the need for clarity and lack of vivacity; vague pronunciation, as a rule, is characterized by compliance, uncertainty, softness, lethargy of will;

- pitch: falsetto / literally – "head voice" / inherent in a person whose thinking and speech come more from the intellect, chest voice-thinking and speech are emotional, natural, not created consciously; high shrill voice-a sign of fear and excitement, and low means peace, relaxation and dignity;

- mode and flow of speech: rhythmic speaking /smooth flow of words with light periodic fluctuations / indicates a wealth of feelings, balance, rather, a good basic mood; strictly cyclical, correct speaking means a strong awareness of what is being experienced, tension of will, discipline, pedantry, coldness of feelings; round-flowing manner of speaking / typical for communication at picnics/ characteristic of people who live deeply, fully, emotionally, angular-jerky manner characterizes sober, expedient thinking.

Interests of observing the peculiarities of laughter.

So, laughter on "a" /ha-ha/ – completely open, coming from the heart, relieving and carefree.

Laughter on "e" /heh-heh/ – not too pleasant, but rather bold, envious.

Laughter on "and" /hee-hee/ – both secretive and sly, a mixture of irony and Schadenfreude.

Laughter on "o" /Ho-Ho/ sounds boastful-pleasing and basically mocking and protesting.

Laughter on "u" /hoo-hoo/ indicates a hidden fear, fearfulness.

Neurotic stuttering is usually associated with acute mental injuries (severe fright in childhood, separation from parents, a sudden change in the usual life stereotype – for example, going to a nursery, kindergarten, etc.). in Addition to stuttering, there may be another speech disorder, the so – called stumbling. Stumbling is not associated with convulsions of the articular muscles, but with various disorders of the tempo and rhythm of speech (accelerated, choking, uneven in rhythm). At the same time, there are also defects in articulation (blurred speech), unexpected fluctuations in volume, monotony, difficult finding of words, unclear wording of phrases, random rearrangement of semantic accents. In the origin of tripping, residual phenomena of early organic brain lesions are of great importance.

Intonation is sometimes more informative than the content of speech. The same verbal formulation can belong to completely different people and can be expressed in a calmly friendly, dispassionately descriptive, insistently pleading, mocking, plaintive or indignant tone. Tempo features of speech are the most important signs of a person's temperament: the mobile type is characterized by fast, rapid speech, almost without pauses; for the inert type – slow, with long pauses. Slow, viscous, detailed speech, with frequent perseverations, a tendency to detail is typical for epileptoids. Slow primitive speech with long pauses, reflecting difficulties in formulating the most basic phrases, is characteristic of people with low intellectual development. Slow, quiet, sometimes barely audible speech, as if through the force of moving lips-distinguish persons who are in a state of depression.
More about the internal emotional state of the person may report the analysis of its coherent speech: how it placed logical stress, as quickly spoken words as constructed of phrases which are deviations from the norm (uncertain or bad choice of words, the truncation of phrases in mid – sentence, changing the words, the appearance of words-parasites, the disappearance of pauses). At the same time:

* quick speech – obvious agitation or concern about something, a passionate desire to convince or persuade someone, a conversation about personal difficulties;

* slow speech – arrogance, fatigue, depression, grief;

* broken speech – uncertainty;

* the appearance of a special "smoothness" of speech – excitement;

* brevity and decisiveness of the speech is explicit confidence;

* stuttering-tension or deception;

* indecision in the choice of words – self-doubt or the intention to suddenly surprise something;

* the appearance of speech defects (repetition or distortion of words, breaking off phrases in the middle of a word) – undoubtedly excitement, but sometimes the desire to deceive;

* lowering voice breaks the tension;

* too long a pause – a lack of interest or disagreement;

* the appearance of pauses in speech, filled with words-parasites ("well...", "so to speak"..., "er"...) – indecision and difficulty in expressing thoughts, finding a way out of the situation;

* inserting diminutive suffixes ("yasnenko") into the spoken word-emotional or physical stress;

* increasing the number of trivial sets of words spoken faster than usual – emotional excitement, tension;

* silence or stinginess in words – resentment;

* constant interruption of others-voltage;

* the transition of internal speech to external speech ("thinking out loud") – excessive excitement.

Involuntary

These reactions are usually difficult to control (although the different techniques they are trying to mask) and therefore is highly informative. Some of them are detected in hardware diagnostics of deception, carried out by devices known under the generic name "lie detector"(as well as "polygraph").

The standard reading of these reactions is as follows:

* redness of the face (sometimes spots) – shame, anger;

* whiteness of the face-fear, a sign of guilt;

* dilated pupils-interest, pleasure, consent, severe pain;

* constriction of the pupils – displeasure, rejection;

* increased pulse beats in the veins of the hands or arteries of the neck (pulling the tie on the neck due to an active heartbeat) – anxiety, fear, shame, deception;

* reduced heart rate – increased attention;

* rapid or shallow breathing – internal tension;

* short breath through the nose-anger;

* impaired breathing, spasmodic throat movements and reflex swallowing of saliva – anxiety, shame, deception;

* dry mouth (swallowing, licking lips, thirst) – fear, deception;

* sudden exposure of teeth-a sign of rage, aggression;

* perspiration , sweat-anger, embarrassment, nervousness, deception;

* trembling (in the fingers and toes, facial muscles) – internal tension, fear, deception;

* frequent blinking – arousal, deception;

* rumbling in the stomach-fear (not always, of course);

* creaking teeth – extreme nervousness, stress, lack of ability to implement the plan.

By the nature of the answers to questions, by the manner in which and in what words, as expressed, you can get the first idea of the characteristics of the speaker's personality.

With epileptoid character accentuation, a person usually responds slowly and laconically, but at the same time reveals an excessive tendency to detail, the need to tell about insignificant details that are not directly related to the essence of the issue being discussed. Such persons can't stand being interrupted, they see inattention to themselves and an unfriendly attitude in the demand for short and clear answers in essence, and then they close up.

With hysteroid accentuation of the character, pretentiousness, theatrical manner of utterance, excessive affectation are observed. With a colorful description of their experiences, such a person seeks to give the impression of being unusual, exceptional, and to focus special attention on themselves.

With sensitive and schizoid character accentuations, there is excessive restraint in responses. The stinginess of statements in sensitive individuals is most often due to shyness, and in schizoid individuals-to the fact that they themselves have already formed their own clear idea of the problem and they report on their own initiative only the information that they themselves think is important.

With psychasthenic character accentuation, you can hear lengthy arguments after the answer, and sometimes instead of it. There is usually an uneasy suspiciousness behind this, a fear of the worst, though unlikely, and reasoning is often used for complacency.

With hypochondriac accentuation, subjects are constantly looking for an opportunity to talk about their problems.

In the neurotic type, there is often an unrestrained irritation in the tone in which the answers are given, and in the paranoid type, there is anger at everyone and everything.

Taking into account the ambiguity of connections between external signs and subjective mental reality, individual specificity of behavioral and vegetative reactions, it is necessary to observe a significant feature of behavior in a particular situation to fix this feature when repeating the situation, as well as in other situations that differ from the original. This allows you to separate random matches of natural ones. Any assumption about the psychological reality that caused this or that behavior requires verification, comparison with alternative sources. Consider the particular conditions for the appearance of the observed behavior in comparison with the General situation, which allows us to more accurately understand the meaning of the observed.

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