Martial arts of the world

We present to your attention an article about the connection of Islam with martial arts. We have tried to be as objective and unbiased as possible in describing this topic. It is worth noting that we are not carriers of this religion, and our view is like a view "from the outside", so we do not delve into the essence of religion, but focus only on what connects it with various martial arts.

Some features of the interaction between martial arts and Islam are also not fully understood. if these questions are answered by adherents of this religion, we will be grateful.

 

Brief description of religion

In Arabic, Islam means "submission", "surrender to God". Religion originated in the seventh century ad in the Arabian Peninsula. Islam, unlike Christianity, has always been closely associated with socio-political institutions and initially spread by armed means, first through the territory of Arabia, then throughout the Middle East. 
Its appearance is connected with the activities of the prophet Muhammad, who declared that there is only one great God – Allah (al-Illah – formerly the tribal God of the Meccan Quraysh).

Muhammad was quite educated and well versed in the essence of Judaism and Christianity. It is not surprising that much of his teaching was taken from the old and New Testaments. Muslim theologians explain the numerous coincidences between the texts of the Bible and the Koran by saying that Allah used to pass on his sacred precepts to the prophets, but these precepts were distorted by Jews and Christians. Only Mohammed was able to convey them without distortion. The very word "Qur'an" means "reading aloud". Muslims believe that the Koran, because it is written in verse, is protected from any changes, and Muhammad is the last of the prophets. He, like the prophet Moses in his time, combined the work of a prophet with the duties of a General and a statesman. Muhammad often wrote down political orders, instructions on military service, parts of the criminal code, and arguments on hygiene and everyday life directly in the Koran, while other religions often limited themselves to General instructions, without going into details. As a result, Islam is one of the most pervasive religions, describing all the details of the functioning of society, which often leads to a chronic incompatibility with reality, since instruction was given for a specific place and a specific era.

In Islam, monotheism is carried out most consistently. Allah is the only God, the faceless one, the Supreme and all-powerful, the wise one, the Creator of all things, and the Supreme judge. Allah is the absolute will. There are no other gods near him. There are angels who embody the idea of good (Jebraidh, Michael, Israfael and Azael), demons and Jinn, evil spirits led by the devil Iblis, who was cursed by Allah. In Islam, there is a teaching about Heaven and Hell, and retribution in the afterlife for deeds in the real world.

The main duties of a Muslim include observing the "five pillars of faith": confession, prayer, fasting, alms, and Hajj. To these five is often added another, sixth "pillar of faith" – Jihad.

Jihad and ghazawat as a concept in Islam

Jihad is a fairly broad concept and includes:

  1. Jihad with nafs (ego).
  2. The Jihad with the Shaitan.
  3. Jihad against the infidels.
  4. Jihad with the wicked and oppressors.
  5. Jihad with the hypocrites (hypocrites).

Jihad can be divided into two categories: Jihad of the heart and Jihad of the sword. "Jihad of the heart" – a Holy war with their passions and vices, spiritual self-improvement.

If it took its proper place among modern Muslims, the Muslim world would make a qualitative leap forward, but the efforts of fanatics are better known to the world as the "Jihad of the sword" – a sacred racial war against oppressors and aggressors, as well as pagans and Satanists.

Methods of conducting Jihad:

1) battle;

2) the verbal call;

3) expenditure of property in the way of Allah;

4) the journey.

In other words, Jihad in Islam is a complete return of strength, when a Muslim spends his entire life trying to spread the religion of Allah.

Dictionaries give the following interpretation of Gazavat: GAZAVAT (Arabic – campaign, RAID, invasion) – one of the names of the Jihad. Participation in the ghazawat was considered a sacred duty for every Muslim. Those who died in the war were declared martyrs, who were supposed to have a place in Paradise. The doctrine of ghazawat originated in early Islam. In the VII-X centuries, during the creation of Muslim theocratic States, the idea of ghazawat served as a justification for the wars of conquest of the Arab Caliphate. Later, it was used for aggressive purposes by Turkish sultans, as well as pan-Islamic leaders. In subsequent epochs, the doctrine of ghazavat underwent some changes.

The connection of Islam with martial arts is through ghazawat and Jihad. If we draw an analogy with the Eastern martial arts, the Jihad of the heart corresponds to the spiritual practices of martial arts, and the Jihad of the sword corresponds to the training and competitive process.

Radical Islam and martial arts

Radical Islam puts Jihad and ghazawat at the top of its ideology. Yet not only do ghazawat and Jihad create its main ideological base, but there are other concepts that are most characteristic of religious fanaticism. Today, Islamists are the main component of global terrorism. Thanks to them, such concepts as fundamentalism, enemies of Islam, Shaheed, Sharia court, and suicide bomber have become widely known. It is they who, under the green banner of Islam and with the "permission" of Allah himself, do their "great deeds". It is the Muslim fanatics who start " Holy wars "with the"enemies of Allah". Note, not with aggressors and invaders, but with imaginary enemies of an imaginary deity! (In any case, this is what everyone who does not adhere to the Islamic religion believes).

Everything committed by the servants of Islam, including murder, is in the name of Allah. However, when necessary, spiritual leaders are excellent at talking about the humanity of the Koran's tenets and the rejection of evil and cruelty by Muslims.

It may seem that Islamic martial arts will find the greatest support in radical Islam, but this is not the case. Preparing an Islamic "cannon fodder" or a suicide bomber does not require long and expensive training. A narrow mind and well-washed brains are the basis for training a fighter of radical Islam. And in order to "shoot from the gun and run straight", you should not bother with a long combat training. A suicide bomber doesn't need combat training at all. Neither technical nor physical training, nor even good health, will be required to blow yourself up in a crowd of "infidels". All you need is a willingness to sacrifice and the belief that you will end up in an Islamic Paradise. So, adherence to radical Islam is a dead-end path for learning and developing martial arts.

Islamic theologians on martial arts

Theologians refer to the fact that the Prophet and his companions were well prepared physically. In the time of the Prophet, living conditions were harder than they are now: men had to travel long distances on foot, and men hunted and fought to survive. There are numerous examples of how the Prophet recommended the practice of certain martial arts to maintain health and prepare believers to repel external aggression. Allah in the Qur'an says (meaning): "Prepare, o believers, against the disbelievers, as much as you can, military force and bridled horses – so you will keep in fear the enemies of Allah and your enemies, and moreover other enemies that you do not know about, but Allah knows about them..." (Sura al-Anfal, verse 55). This is also what the Prophet calls for in the hadith: "A strong believer is more beloved by Allah than a weak one. Although there is good in both."

As a basis for imitation, a hadith from Muhammad Ibn Ali Ibn Rukan is given, which States that Rukan fought the Prophet, and the Prophet defeated him several times. In another version of this hadith from sayd Ibn Jubayr, it is said that when the Prophet was in the area of Batha, Yazid, the son of Rukan, or Rukan himself, came to him, and with Him were his sheep. He said to the Prophet, " O Muhammad, can you overcome me?" The prophet said: "What will you bet for the fight?" Rukana replied: "I'll bet one of my sheep." The prophet defeated him. Rukana said: "Let's do it again!" The prophet asked again: "What will you bet for the fight?" Rukana replied that he would put up another sheep. The prophet defeated him again. Rukana said, "O Muhammad, by Allah, no one has ever defeated me!" and converted to Islam, and the Prophet returned the sheep to him.

Islam's attitude to shooting is also respectful. As proof, the words of the prophet are quoted: "Archery is power." In modern times the bow was replaced by firearms, not by changing the whole approach to shooting.

In addition, throwing everything sharp is considered permissible. This also includes any type of throwing, which develops accuracy and accuracy of hitting any target-flying, moving or stationary, such as throwing a core, disk, boomerang, stone, kettlebell, knives, axe, everything that can harm the enemy on the battlefield.

An example is the case when the Prophet allowed habashita to compete in the javelin in his mosque. The Prophet's companion wanted to stop them, but the Prophet wouldn't let him. Also, the Prophet allowed his wife Aisha to watch the contest. A hadith transmitted from Abu Hurayrah says: "There is no competition except in throwing (something) sharp."

According to Imam al-Shafi'i, the competition in different types of weapons is divided into two types:

  1. the Weapon that leaves the hand.
  2. Weapons that do not leave your hands.

The first type includes arrows, spears, weapons of various kinds, stones, weights, etc. To the second – sword, sabre, and the like. Everything that leaves the hand is allowed to compete, and opinions are divided as to whether the second is allowed. Some theologians forbade this type of competition, saying that it is not a competition, but a fight with an opponent who can cause injuries. Others allowed it, rightly considering that this type of struggle is necessary in war.

Martial arts in the era of the birth and spread of Islam

Muslim military and martial arts are closely linked to the"Arab world". At various times in the Middle East, there were ancient civilizations that had developed systems of military training. The Greeks and then the Romans left a deep mark on the history of military culture in the Middle East. The ancestors of the modern peoples of the Arab world have learned a lot from them. There were fully formed military and martial arts, fist fighting, stone throwing, fencing, archery.

By the sixth century ad, numerous tribes of the Arabian Peninsula had organized troops in the form of militia formations. Each such force was commanded by a tribal chief (Sheikh). He also completed the tribal militia and supervised its training, strictly asking the elders of the clans for the training of their soldiers.

Pre-Islamic sources attest to the existence of a "self-governing armed organization" and a system of military-physical education, "which was carried out by special people allocated by the family".

By the middle of the seventh century, the population of Arabia was divided into two main groups: the warlike Bedouin nomads and the sedentary inhabitants engaged in trade and crafts. Among the Bedouin martial arts were: horse riding, archery, possession of cold weapons (lance, javelin, Mace, dagger), wrestling. Bedouin what would the craft was considered an unworthy activity. They were free warriors, and devoted all their leisure time to riding, throwing spears, javelins, and wielding clubs, clubs, shields, and daggers... A warrior-hero (Faris) should not only be able to use weapons, but also know the art of hand-to-hand combat, master the techniques of fighting.

The main subjects of military training at this time were horse riding, archery, and the use of spears, swords, and shields. Auxiliary training tools were widely used – all kinds of games that develop dexterity, strength, endurance, and the ability to act together with friends. Especially popular were horse games (for example, horse Polo), which helped to practice the skills of collective combat.

In addition to various exercises, games and competitions, hunting classes were used as an element of warrior training. By the ninth century, a three-level system of military training was finally formed. The initial training of children took place in the family, the training of teenagers and young men – in the tribal militia, professional training of young men – in the troops of the Caliph's governors, or in his own army. Of course, this system had its own specifics in different regions.

You can describe the principles of training soldiers of this historical period:

1) every man is a warrior;

2) teach what is necessary in nomadic economy and military Affairs;

3) tradition: teach and educate as prescribed by the ancestors;

4) support for the practical side of training and education;

5) teach and educate at a high level of difficulty, which was facilitated by harsh living conditions;

6) visibility of training and education, which was manifested in ritual practice, based on the life experience of the ancestors;

7) continuity of training and education (taught and educated young people in everyday life and engaged in this whole tribe);

8) joint training and education of warriors.

Let us now say a few words about the traditional martial arts of the Islamic world.

Archery

Onions have been known since ancient times to almost all peoples of the planet. Its multi-functional use for both war and hunting, as well as its ability to strike at a distance, contributed to the popularity of the bow before the advent of modern firearms. In the method of training combat archers, the following elements can be distinguished:

- precision training;

- training of striking qualities;

- rate of fire training

- training of camouflage, protection from enemy influence and movement on the battlefield.

Among the Arabs, most of whom were nomads, all these elements were fully present, and were known long before they adopted Islam. Islam gave the bow the role of a religious attribute, and introduced shooting with it to the rank of a religious obligation. In ancient times, when addressing the tribesmen, the speaker leaned on the bow, which emphasized the importance of his words.

The prophet considered archery the most useful of all permitted amusements. Thus, archery competitions in Islam were welcomed and encouraged.

In the treatise on Arab archery describes approaches to the training of the Archer: "Hasty shooting is based on accuracy, lethality, the ability to hit from a long distance, the ability to shoot quickly, and the ability to protect yourself.

These five concepts are the pillars on which archery stands, and the real Archer is the one who possesses these qualities to the full. They are interdependent in the same way as the five constituent elements vital to archery: the bow, bowstring, arrow, ring, and Archer. This means the following: Whether an arrow that hits a target but doesn't hit it will do any good. The opposite is equally meaningless if the arrow is destructive but does not reach the target. If the arrow is equally correct in hitting the target and in the ability to hit it, but the Archer can not protect himself from the enemy, the latter can kill him. Again, if the accuracy, lethality of the arrow, and the ability to create the right defense are present, but the rate of fire is insufficient, the shooter's opponent is very likely to turn to flight, and elude him because of his slowness in shooting. Finally, although shooting will satisfy all four requirements, but the Archer will not be able to keep a distance from the enemy, his opponent will probably be able to kill him unnoticed."

The prophet himself was an Archer and possessed three bows. He urged his followers to practice horse riding and archery, preferring the latter. When archery competitions were held, the Prophet used to watch and support one or the other of the competing parties.

A number of Arab authors claim that Adam, being banished from Paradise, was forced to grow grain. Two birds ate what he had sown, and he complained to God, who sent Jabrayil with a bow, string, and two arrows. When asked what it is, Jabrayil explained that the bow is the power of God, the bowstring is the energy of God, and the arrows are the punishment sent by God. Gabriel taught Adam to shoot and kill birds. The knowledge of archery passed to Abraham, Ishmael, and Isaac, and archery became a legacy passed down from these illustrious ancestors.

There is a statement attributed to the Prophet that it is a sin to give up archery after learning this art.

With the advent of guns and pistols, the bow has lost the relevance of combat use, but the existing cult of shooting with it has largely determined the attitude of modern Muslims to firearms.

Fighting

The emergence and development of Arab wrestling was greatly influenced by the single combats of the inhabitants of ancient Mesopotamia – the cradle of the civilizations of Sumer, Babylon and Assyria. Their component parts were wrestling and fistfight. Physical education, which was the basis of folk pedagogy, included wrestling in the General system of education. Among the Arabs, wrestling has been popular since time immemorial. Also, wrestling classes are typical for other regions, where Islam later became the predominant religion. For example, various types of struggle were practiced in the Caucasus and Central Asia long before Islam arrived there.

Traditional wrestling existed in the North Caucasus in two forms. The first type, when the wrestler was required to stand on his own feet, but throw the opponent to the ground with his back up. This type of struggle was conducted with the hands, head or leg grabs were not allowed, but two-handed grabs of one opponent's hand were allowed when throwing over themselves.

The second type of struggle – when the opponent had to be thrown to the ground, but with his back, "on the shoulder blades". The main stand for this type of fight was to capture each other crosswise (the right hand on top of the opponent's shoulder, and the left-under the shoulder), clasping the hands on the back with a "lock" or interlaced fingers. In the second form of martial arts, they used a belt or could grab the floors of a shirt or beshmet. If at the beginning of the fight one of the partners untied his belt or opened his hands, they were stopped, and they started again from the stand.

The struggle has been widespread in Central Asia since ancient times. Wrestling classes were considered one of the best ways to support health, body and spirit. Wrestling in its various variations, as a national sport of Asian peoples, has existed for three thousand years. Almost as long as these peoples live and remember themselves. Wrestling was used as entertainment and leisure during major social events, such as traditional festivals, ceremonies, and weddings.

What all historical types of wrestling have in common is a clear reliance on the power component of their opponents. Despite the presence of a variety of interesting technical components, there is little conscious application of the principles of biomechanics characteristic of martial arts and later Sambo. In modern sports, ancient types of wrestling most correspond to such as classical, freestyle and belt wrestling.

In the period of VII-XIV centuries. Muslim missionaries began to enter the Great Steppe. The warlike steppe people believed that Islam was the religion of the urban inhabitants, and it linked their military spirit and freedom of action. Therefore, Islam did not immediately gain a foothold in Central Asia as one of their main religions.

The adoption of Islam by the peoples of the North Caucasus also stretched for almost a thousand years due to their large ethnic and political fragmentation. If in Dagestan, Ossetia and Kabarda, for example, in the XVIII century. if there were already state entities, then the mountaineers of Chechnya and the Western Caucasus until the very beginning of the XIX century. Therefore, it is hardly fair to talk about the influence of Islam on their martial arts and wrestling, in particular. The development of the struggle took place in national rather than religious traditions.

However, it is worth noting the favorable attitude in Islam to this martial art. Muslims have the opinion that the struggle was given to people by Allah himself, and therefore it is a God – pleasing occupation. As proof, the words attributed to the prophet are quoted: "the Angels were not present at any of our amusements, except wrestling and horse racing."

Fencing with sticks

During the period of adoption and formation of Islam as a religion, fencing on sticks of various lengths was widely practiced among the peoples of the Middle East and Central Asia. Sometimes such duels were held to the accompaniment of musical instruments.

In a duel, the opponents go out into the open and start the fight at the signal. The length of the stick varies from a walking stick "in the waist" to a staff just above the human height. Each of the opponents attacks his opponent and defends himself from his blows. The fight is dynamic, blows are applied almost all over the body. When making pairs, the judges make sure that the opponents are approximately of the same level of training. Otherwise, a weaker fighter risks leaving the court with a broken arm or leg.

Stick fencing is directly related to sword or sabre fighting. In support of this, some researchers cite the fact that fencing with sticks is used as a means of preparing for sword fights.

Fencing with elements of dance consists in the fact that the opponents during the fight adhere to the rhythm that musical instruments set them, or the clapping of the audience's hands. But the element of competition does not disappear. Victory is valued as highly as in a normal match.

Stick fencing has a double meaning:

Avoiding unnecessary injuries and blood feuds in intertribal conflict situations. Even at the time of the emergence of firearms, participants in such a conflict, with rifles on their shoulders, preferred to fight with sticks and stones.

Preparation for fencing with swords or sabres. The sword, and later the saber, was the main weapon of Islam's active expansion. The prophet knew and appreciated this type of weapon and said: "Paradise is under the shadow of swords, and the dignity of the sword is higher than any other weapon. Even when using other weapons to conquer countries and States, they say that they took them with the sword...".

Knife throwing

Knife or dagger throwing competitions are popular in many parts of the Muslim world. This is not surprising when you consider that in a number of Arab countries, Central Asian countries, as well as in the Caucasus, every adult man is required to carry a knife (or dagger). This custom, for example, is widespread in Yemen: according to the customs of the country, every boy who is no longer allowed to go to the bathhouse with women, since he has reached the age of a man, begins to wear a dagger, which is considered a sign of manhood.

Throwing competitions are held during various holidays. The purpose of throwing can be any object that can enter the blade of a knife or a specially made target, as is found, for example, in the Algerian Tuareg. Knives are thrown at a square, woven from palm leaves target. One by one, the participants throw their knives at the target from a distance of about ten paces. Often competitions are held under the drum roll. The contestant turns, shifts his body weight from one leg to the other, pulls his arm back and throws the knife, trying to hit the center of the target.

Everyone throws the knife in their own way. Sometimes it is a throw with a turn of the entire body, sometimes-from the bottom up, sometimes-an unexpected lightning stroke.

It should be noted that today knife throwing has a folklore and entertainment character, and not the nature of practical combat use.

Battle games

A separate place between martial arts and martial arts of the peoples of the Islamic world was occupied by a variety of games-battles with real weapons, improvised items and in the form of hand-to-hand combat. In the most General form, they represent a confrontation between two groups, in order to hold their territory and drive out (drive out) the opposite side, or in order to take possession of a certain place (site, "fortress"), which is protected by the "enemy".

The reason for the games-battles could serve as enmity between different parts of the locality (or urban clans), clashes between which eventually turned into a kind of spectacle. Thus, in medieval FEZ (Morocco), youths of the neighboring streets of the city and suburbs traditionally competed: carrying weapons, they gathered outside the city, where a fierce battle began.

Among the kabyles of Algeria, representatives of two parts of the community traditionally compete with each other. The kabyls settle in small, isolated communities with almost complete self-government. Each community is divided into two divisions – "sofa". Each Sof is a mutual protection and mutual assistance organization covering a range of life situations. Sof functions both in times of peace and in times of war. If there is a quarrel or a fight between people from different sofas, then friends and other young men and men of the sofa, without delving into the cause of the quarrel, stand next to their own, and the fight becomes General. A fight that starts with fists often turns into a real battle with the use of stones, sticks, swords, or even guns. Curiously, the intervention of women often stops the fight.

But, whatever the specific reason for the origin of certain games-battles, their participants always tried to attack at the most appropriate moments, deftly strike, occupy favorable positions for attack, make flanking detours, quickly pursue the enemy or retreat in an organized manner. In other words, they were a good school of tactics.

All battle games can be divided into several types.

One kind of, this – "stone battles." Their essence is that the opposing teams throw stones, trying to turn one another into flight. Throwing is performed both with hands and with the help of special devices, such as slings, which were widely used among the Arabs and in the Caucasus in the past.

In other types of battle games, the main role is played by hand-to-hand combat with sticks or weapons. In these games allowed blows with hands and feet, grappling for the body and the clothes of the opponents.

For example, the Arab traveler, geographer and historian El-Hasan Ibn-Mohammed El-Wazzan, known to European readers as the lion of Africa, writes about the city of Fez:

"At certain times of the year, young people from one street gather and fight with sticks with young people from another street. Sometimes both parties are so inflamed that they take up arms, and many kill each other, especially on holidays when young people gather outside the city. After the dump is over, they start throwing stones at each other, and so on for the rest of the day."

Often, to win, it was necessary to put the enemy to flight or capture as many "enemies" as possible, in order to then receive a symbolic ransom (and often a very real reward) for them.

The number of games-battles should include children's games "in war", where players are also divided into two parties, attacking each other, and which in one way or another include elements of "stone battle", combat with fake weapons, elements of fighting and fistfight.

A distinctive feature of such children's games is the lack of binding to any dates or events.

The plot of the battle is present in games such as "fight for a high place", in which the defenders of the hill strike the attackers with their feet.

Among other things, children's "battle games" from childhood taught children to act together, obey certain rules and their commanders, and strive to achieve a common goal for all.

Raid

Since ancient times, raids have been a characteristic feature of the way of life of nomadic tribes. The Bedouins call them "gas", or "gazu" (Arab. "campaign", "RAID"), among the Tuaregs it is known as" edien "(or"ed wives"). Among the Turkmens, the RAID is called "Alman".

Raids also took place among the inhabitants of the Caucasus. Among the Adygs, the RAID was called "Zek'ue".

In essence, a RAID is a trip to someone else's territory (an attack on a tribe, village, caravan, or wagon train) for the purpose of looting. The main object of plunder was usually prisoners, cattle, and other people's property.

If in the middle East or Central Asia raids were carried out either in the spring, when large herds gathered at wells (rain ponds), or in the winter – in order to capture sheep, in the Caucasus it was winter, usually January-February. The" season " of raids was explained by two factors – the fact that in winter the mountain community was relatively free from economic concerns, as well as the wooded area that they occupied. Participants in the raids, fearing that in the summer there might be ambushes in the dense forest thickets, preferred to wait until the leaves fell completely, when they could view the area.

Raids were often made not only for the sake of capturing loot, but also for the sake of gaining fame and respect from their tribe (village). Sometimes lone horsemen went on a RAID, wanting to meet a worthy opponent and challenge him to a duel.

Before setting out on a campaign, all warriors swore an oath to help each other in battle and share the spoils fairly, and also swore to obey the leader. The right to be a leader was a warrior who was known for "his bravery". Origin, in this case, was of no importance. In many Nations, "warlords" in peacetime had no privileges other than honor. However, in the conditions of the campaign, the leader acquired unlimited powers, and the warrior was from him in "unconditional obedience".

The attack itself was "traditional" and highly organized. A RAID on an aul, village or village was made only at night, half an hour before dawn. Before making an attack, the leader made a regrouping of forces-divided the squad into three parts: the most selected, experienced soldiers were included in the first two groups, the third was the quartermaster service, which, led by one of the soldiers, was also a reserve. From two main parts, the leader formed a special group intended for looting. They also created a new vanguard and rearguard, which now had to act in the conditions of withdrawal, return home.

Approaching the "object of looting", the newly formed vanguard cordoned off the settlement. At the same time, a special group dedicated to looting broke into the village. At the time of the attack, this group was divided into small parties of four or more people. It was these parties that rushed into residential buildings and, taking their inhabitants by surprise, tied people up, killed them if they resisted, and took everything that came to hand. The robbery usually did not last long, no more than 30-40 minutes. The village was abandoned at the signal of the leader. During the withdrawal, forces were regrouped again. Now the part of the party that had previously been the rearguard took over the functions of the vanguard, which was obliged to protect the newly captured prey. The former vanguard, in turn, automatically turned into a rearguard: its task was to cover from possible pursuers of the retreating detachment.

It is noted that during the attack, they tried only to disarm or injure their opponents, and the murder entailed blood feud. If a member of another tribe was killed, the killer had to pay a large amount of compensation. Otherwise, the blood feud could last for several generations in a row.

The laws of bloodshed show us the true reason for the comparative bloodlessness of raids. Indeed, with the above-mentioned responsibility for each person killed, the attackers try to avoid causing fatal injuries to their opponents, who in turn are guided by the same considerations.

Sometimes the case is decided by single combat of individuals, which shows prowess, dexterity and resourcefulness, however, such a fight of individual fighters can end in a General dump.

Any warrior who feels the impossibility of further resistance, turns to flight, and the winner pursues him until the runner is exhausted and asks for mercy. The pursuer makes him his prisoner, the horse and weapons of the latter become the property of the winner, and the loser remains in captivity until a ransom is obtained for him.

In view of the sporting nature of all non-political feuds, flight is not considered a disgrace, but only a means to further delay the surrender, which, in turn, has the same connotation as the player's surrender of the party.

Participation in the raid was considered voluntary, but honorable. For young people, it was an exam for "aptitude" and an opportunity to prove their "adulthood". Every raid was also a school of military training, which was typical for the Muslim peoples of many regions. In addition, the raids of the Caucasus mountaineers were considered as a phenomenon associated with the peculiarities of the economy of the mountaineers, the scarcity of vital resources. Robberies were often committed, that is, the theft of livestock and other riches from neighbors, as well as the capture of prisoners, who were then willingly released for a decent ransom or sold in slave markets as slaves.

Islam and martial arts

The emergence of the Muslim tradition of martial arts is associated with trade on the Silk road. The bearers of these traditions were not the Arabs, but the Chinese, who converted to Islam due to economic necessity. The silk road passed mainly through Muslim countries, where for a merchant who spent most of his life on the road, a single religion with the host country was more important than nationality and promised to give at least a small amount of support away from home. This was better than nothing, and as the Chinese caravan guards who had converted to Islam continued to practice their martial arts after their adoption, the Muslim tradition of martial arts gradually emerged. Arab merchants, in turn, tried to respect Chinese culture, including their martial arts, because this allowed us to count on the fact that Chinese officials will not treat them as barbarians.

In the middle ages, traders from the Islamic States of the Middle East and Central Asia came to China along the great silk road. Some of them settled permanently. There were also preachers who spread the teachings of Islam, and they managed to convert some of the inhabitants of the Middle Empire. Under the Tang and song dynasties, that is, until the thirteenth century, the Muslim population of China gradually increased due to immigrants who came by land and sea – astronomers, mathematicians, doctors.

Since 1219, when Genghis Khan went to war in the West, Muslims began to move to China from the conquered territories-Persians and Arabs. In official documents, they were called "huihui". In 1275, in accordance with the Emperor's decree, a special national group was gradually formed in China – the huizu ("Muslims").

During the seven hundred years of its existence, the huizu national group was closely associated with wars and uprisings. This contributed to the widespread popularity of martial arts among Chinese Muslims. The huizu regarded Wushu as a sacred rite that stimulated the spirit of Muslims.

According to the treatise "Jixiao xinshu" ("New book of records of Achievements [in military Affairs]"), which was written by the famous General of the Ming dynasty Qi Jiguang, at that time three schools of spear fighting were famous-the schools of the Yang, MA and Sha families. The MA and Sha families were Muslim. Popular among Muslims, the "huihui Shiba Zhou" style ("18 Muslim elbows") was considered"the quintessence of military equipment". Styles such as " jiaomen tantui "("Islamic tantui») and "zhaquan" ("fist of Zha") were typical styles of Muslims.

The Hui people are widely distributed all over China in small groups. Therefore, it is difficult to say which styles of Wushu are purely Muslim, we only state the fact of their existence.

Modern Islam and martial arts

Islam is an all-pervading religion, but it is not frozen in its development, and theologians are forced to respond to the contradictions that arise between the rapidly changing world and religious dogmas. This also applies to the relationship to martial arts.

This attitude is generally positive, since Islam encourages Muslims to be strong and use the permitted means to acquire this power.

But at the same time, a Muslim must maintain the purity and correctness of his faith. When engaging in sports or any kind of exercise, they should stay away from beliefs and practices that directly contradict the immutable doctrines of the Islamic faith.

Martial arts and exercises are an effective method of achieving balance and harmony between body and mind, and they also help develop self-respect and discipline, which are essential conditions for a successful life.

However, martial arts such as Aikido, karate, etc. are filled with occult, mystical, or metaphysical doctrines, or systems of beliefs and practices that contradict Islam.

Muslims are only allowed to practice these martial arts if they can be cleared of this baggage. In spiritual terms, for a Muslim, there are only two reliable sources – the Koran and the Sunnah.

Most Eastern metaphysical or mystical systems are based on the pantheistic view of the world, which equates the world with God and God with the world, while the Islamic view of the world assumes a clear distinction between the two. Therefore, a Muslim should not accept either this view of the world or the practices based on it.

Quite interesting is the attitude in the Islamic world to shock martial arts and Boxing, in particular. The prophet encouraged his followers to engage in sports and exercises that, while safe, would keep the body healthy. In Islam, it is considered unacceptable to inflict bodily injuries during sports. Inflicting injuries as a retaliatory measure, Islam also categorically prohibits, whether Muslim or non-Muslim.

Boxing and other shock martial arts involve the direction of blows to the head and face. This is forbidden in Islam according to the hadith of the Prophet: "If one of you fights (in another version – fights) with a person, he should not hit him in the face. (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)".

In this regard, it would be interesting to learn from Muslim theologians their attitude to Muhammad Ali, the greatest of boxers (Cassius Clay before the adoption of Islam), and to other boxers, participants in fights without rules and other athletes of shock martial arts. As far as we know, there are a lot of them in the Caucasus, and the Caucasus mostly adheres to Islam.

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