Action in extreme situations

In modern conditions, techniques of hand-to-hand combat (especially bayonet) have largely lost the importance for scouts that they had before.

Experts note that even during the great Patriotic war, that is, more than 50 years ago, the intelligence groups could not conduct any long hand-to-hand combat. At present, the possession of techniques of combat using cold weapons, improvised means, throws, strangulations is often necessary only for capturing or silently destroying the enemy. Sometimes such techniques can be useful in a sudden encounter with the enemy close at night, in the woods, among the destroyed buildings, in underground communications.

Removing the watch

To successfully remove the sentry, it is extremely important to get close to him so that he does not see or hear anything until the very last moment. And, accordingly, not to have time to scream, because a loud scream in silence can be heard at a distance of up to one kilometer! Therefore, it is best to attack the sentry from behind (in some cases from the side), but not from the front.

Remember that many people can distinguish the noise of even quiet footsteps from 30 to 40 meters away. Therefore, it is necessary to sneak up on the sentry from the leeward side, or choose the place to which he will approach himself. To distract his attention, it is advisable to throw some small object to the side, causing the sentry to turn around at the noise. The resulting pause should be immediately used for an attack. In an attack, you need to combine two actions: one hand to close the sentry's mouth, the other-to strike with a knife. In some cases, you can replace a knife blow with a blow with a heavy object, neck twisting or strangulation.

Of course, it is most convenient to shoot sentries with shots from silent weapons. However, it does not provide a one-hundred-percent guarantee of destruction (especially at night), since there is always the possibility of a miss or injury. This can lead to noise and, as a result, to the failure of the operation. Therefore, although contact methods of action are difficult, they can not be completely excluded from the Arsenal of scouts.

Destroying a sentry with a knife. Stabs when removing the sentry are performed in the neck (throat), in the heart (under the left shoulder blade), in the kidneys, in the liver (right hypochondrium) or spleen (left hypochondrium).

The neck of the opponent can be hit with both a stabbing and chopping blow. A stabbing blow is most effective when it affects the base of the neck from the front just below the Adam's Apple (or from the side, above the clavicle). A chopping (cutting) blow is applied to the throat from the front slightly above the Adam's Apple (which requires bending the head of the sentry back) or from the side, cutting the carotid artery. In all these cases, instant death occurs.

In the heart (under the left shoulder blade), in the left or right kidney, in the liver, in the spleen, a strong stabbing blow is applied and try to turn the knife in the wound. As a result, the opponent instantly loses consciousness, because there is a powerful release of blood inside the body, and after a short period of time, a fatal outcome occurs.

If it is not possible to cross the last section of space that separates the scout from the sentry unnoticed, then other attack options are used. The first is knocking down a sentry by jumping on him from behind with a run-up, while simultaneously stabbing him in the throat. The second is to throw a knife at him from behind (a sapper's shovel, a hatchet, a rock). Then overcome the "dead space" with a jerk and finish off the enemy with a second knife.

Of course, there are other ways to destroy the enemy with a knife. For example, sometimes it is possible to attack a sentry from the front, if the scout managed to deceive the enemy (changed into someone else's uniform or civilian clothes, portrayed a drunken local resident, surrendering an unarmed soldier, etc.). But they are all unreliable, because the sentry must immediately stop him with a loud exclamation and point a weapon at him.

Destroying a sentry by strangulation. To destroy the enemy by strangulation, scouts usually use a specially prepared choke made of a guitar string (less often-from a nylon fishing line) with handles attached at its ends. The length of any garrote is between 30 and 50 centimeters. The string is good because it not only suffocates, but also cuts into the skin. If there is no string, it can be replaced with steel wire, electric cord, rope, towel, or a narrow, strong belt. However, all these "chokes" are much less effective than the string. They do not fit so tightly to the neck of the opponent, they tighten worse, they can break, and finally, they are not so convenient to use.

There is another kind of string, which, however, does not choke, but simply cuts off the head. This is a string with diamond chips sprayed on it and T-shaped handles at the ends, which doctors use as a surgical saw. It is called "saw Gigli". It can be used for 10 seconds to saw through the leg in the hip along with the bone, and it cuts the throat instantly!

There are two main ways to remove a sentry with a garrote. First: creeping up behind him, throw a string around his throat, quickly turn your back to him to ensure that the ends of the string are crossed in the hands of the scout and drag the enemy with force, rotating in a circle on the spot. After 10-30 seconds, death will occur, the faster the deeper the string cut into the throat and the stronger the pulling force.

The second: throwing a string (or cord) over your head on your throat, make a sharp jerk with your hands back on yourself and at the same time a little towards each other. At the same time, bend your body back, and use your knee or heel to hit the sentry hard in the lower back. As a result, he will fall backwards. At the moment of its fall, the scout must take a step to the side (without letting go of the stranglehold) and complete the strangulation on the ground.

There are many ways to strangle with your hands, but all of them are much less reliable than using a stranglehold, so we do not consider here. By the way, a garrote (especially from a string) it is also good because it completely eliminates the possibility of shouting. When choking with their hands, the opponent either screams or makes loud inarticulate sounds when the capture is unsuccessful. Choke with your hands is better when you want to capture the enemy, not kill.

Destruction of the sentinel by a fracture of the cervical vertebrae. To break the neck vertebrae, which almost always leads to instant death, requires a sharp strong movement to turn the opponent's head to the side. This method is not as effective as working with a knife or a garrote. However, in war there are all sorts of things, it may happen that there is no knife or no garrote at hand. It is very difficult to turn the head of a healthy man when he is standing. The attacker needs to have very strong hands and be taller than his victim. Therefore, previously the opponent is knocked to the ground and, straddling his back, sharply twist his head with a counter movement of his hands. The left hand pushes the back of the head away from itself, the right hand pulls the chin towards itself and up.

Another option: grab the chin of the fallen opponent with both hands (sitting on his back), and then combine the two movements. Hands sharply throw back his head back-to the right-up, and the right knee strongly press left-forward on the area of the cervical vertebrae. A fracture occurs.

The third option of folding the neck is associated with tipping the sentry not forward, but back, hitting his foot in the popliteal fold. Simultaneously, the hands sharply twist the head of the opponent. You should be clearly aware of the main drawback of these methods: they do not guarantee the absence of noise. The sentry may have a muscular neck, the hand grip may not be quite reliable, and as a result, the enemy will have time to let out a scream.

Taking prisoner

The experience of the great Patriotic war, armed conflicts in Afghanistan and Chechnya has shown that there are a large number of ways to capture. However, they all have some similar aspects. First, the capture of a prisoner must be made by several scouts (at least two). Second, all the actions of the members of the capture group should be rehearsed to full automatism, literally to the level of a circus trick. Third, the capture of a prisoner, as well as the removal of a sentry, is made by scouts suddenly, after they have managed to secretly get to the intended object at the required distance. Fourthly, the capture must be carried out silently and imperceptibly: after all, the prisoner must still be interrogated, and if he is of value to the command, then not destroyed after the interrogation, but transported to the base. With a noisy capture, it is unlikely to succeed.

There are three main ways to silently capture the "language". The first is to sneak up on the enemy and stun them with a heavy blunt object on the head. If the opponent is wearing a metal helmet, then the shock object must be wrapped with a cloth to avoid unnecessary noise. If the helmet is made of Kevlar, it is not necessary to wrap it. The second is reduced to throwing a cloak over the head of the enemy-capes, jackets, blankets. It is also a good idea to put a cover, bag or deep basket on it with a flourish. The third method is to perform back-smothering techniques.

Using any of these methods, you need to make sure that you do not kill the enemy, as well as to ensure that he could not shout or shoot. That is why a prisoner is captured by two or three people. One shuts his mouth and grabs the enemy's weapon, the other holds a reception or throws a Cape over his head. The prisoner's silence is completely ensured by a blow to the Adam's Apple (the thyroid cartilage on the throat) with a fist (the edge of the palm), but it is not always possible to perform this technique. The sequence of actions during capture is as follows: stun or strangle the enemy, tie his hands and put a gag in his mouth, then transport him to his destination. Can he go himself-let him go, can't – will have to drag the scouts.

There are two possible suffocating techniques for capturing the enemy: strangling with the elbow bend and strangling with the collar of clothing from behind.

In the first case, you need to get close to the opponent from behind, hold his mouth and nose with your left hand, and throwing his head back, push his right foot into the popliteal fold (better left leg, not right). At the same time, grab the opponent's throat with your right hand so that the elbow is under the chin and perform the strangulation with the elbow bend. To strengthen the reception, you need to put your left hand on the wrist of your right hand, and put the opponent on your back or sit on the ground. When he loses consciousness, which takes no more than 15 seconds, together with his partner to carry him to cover.

Strangling with a loop of clothing is performed in the following way. Creeping up on the opponent from behind, put your left hand under his left arm and put your hand on the back of his head. Right hand over his right shoulder to grab the lapel of the garment to the left of his throat. Strongly pressing the left palm on the back of the head of the opponent, the right hand pull the lapel of the clothing to itself over the right shoulder.

At the same time, pressing the opponent to himself and pushing him in the popliteal fold with his foot, sit on the ground. Then wrap your legs around his body and connect both feet, hooking them together, on his stomach. Continuing to pull the left lapel of the opponent's clothing with your right hand, you need to push the torso away from you with your feet.

If the enemy managed to Dodge while trying to capture the enemy, you should immediately proceed to perform some well-practiced hand-to-hand combat technique to reliably neutralize it. For example, you can hit your head in the face of an opponent (if he is not wearing a helmet, on the edge of which you can cut your own head), immediately sit down and throw his back to the ground through the grip of his hands under his knees. Throwing, you should lift your opponent's legs higher so that he hit the ground with the back of his head, then finish him off with a kick to the throat. Or do not finish, but put a gag in your mouth, tie it up and take it away.

In cases where the capture of a prisoner is made on a narrow road where the enemy is riding a motorcycle or Bicycle, a whole group of four people comes into action. Two men stretch a rope across the road, check its tension, then lay it on the ground and disguise themselves behind the roadside vegetation, waiting for the rider to approach, holding the ends of the rope in their hands. Two more scouts lie nearby, one with a rope to bind the prisoner, the other with a gag to cover his mouth. When the enemy approaches the designated conventional line, the scouts with the rope jump up sharply and pull the rope at the level of the chest or face of the moving enemy. He falls on the road, the third and fourth scouts grab him and carry him away, and the first and second quickly remove all traces from the road. With a good practice of this method in training, it takes no more than 20 seconds in real performance.

Binding the prisoner

Having captured the "language", the scouts need to deliver it somewhere. To prevent him from resisting and escaping, he is bound, gagged, and often blindfolded. For binding use a rope, cord, cable, narrow belt. The length of the binding element must be at least one meter.

When binding with a rope (cord, cable), the loop is made either "outline" or "double tightening". The first method is reduced to the following actions: fold the rope in half, take it with the right hand from the ends, and open the closed end and put it on the fingers of the left hand. After that, put the open end on the rope at the right hand, make a loop with your fingers and push it to the left. The resulting loop can be worn both on the hands of the prisoner and on the feet.

After making the loop put on the hands or feet of the opponent and tighten the jerk for the ends. Then they are additionally tied to something or linked together. Scouts should not forget that it is not recommended to keep the limbs tied for more than two hours in a row, otherwise there will be tissue necrosis (in winter even faster than 2 hours). If the combat task is not solved during this time, it is necessary to loosen the bonds on the prisoner, restore his motor functions (for example, by rubbing his numb parts of the limbs), then tie him up again, but above or below the previous place.

The first method of binding: pin the prisoner face to the ground and, sitting astride him, bend one arm behind his back and tighten the noose on it, then wrapping the rope a couple of times around the wrist. After that, pull the second hand up to the bound hand, put it on top and wrap the separated ends of the loop around both hands. Tie the loose ends of the rope in a knot. Put the captive on his feet and lead in the right direction, holding by the shoulder, or pushing in the back, if he is blindfolded.

The second method of binding is the binding of the prisoner's hands from behind, with the palms facing out, used (after hitting the enemy on the head) if he resisted and tried to escape, as well as in other cases when the situation requires it. Gag your mouth with a cloth or insert a wooden gag, and not very deep, so that the opponent does not suffocate. To bind the hands from behind, put the loop "sketch" on the hands, tighten the loop and, having separated the ends, wrap the hands 2-3 times at the wrist joint, then tie the ends with the usual knot.

The third method is used when it is necessary to move along with the prisoner crawling. In this case, his hands are tied in front, placing one forearm on the other. He crawls with his elbows on the ground.

The fourth method allows you to completely deprive the prisoner of any ability to move. To do this, you need to take out the rope, put it on a loop on your wrist and tightly tie your hands to each other. With your left hand, lift your head by the hair and, throwing the rope around your throat, pull your bound hands closer to your head. By pulling the rope, force the opponent to bend his legs at the knees and tie them in the area of the ankle joints in the same way as the hands.

The use of a stick, post, or tree is very effective in preventing a prisoner from moving under the appropriate conditions.

Binding for escorting

If the situation dictates the need to move the bound prisoner from one place to another, methods of binding are used that do not interfere with his movement, but limit the possibility of resistance, in which one end of the rope rigidly fixes the bound hands at the wrists, the other end is connected to the ankle through a loop on the neck. In this way escorted can go, but run not, because when running the noose around the neck, frequent and sudden jerking from bound feet to smother and stop the run.

Stabbings

At a sudden meeting with the enemy closely, you must instantly apply various blows with those objects that were at hand at that moment. First of all, a knife or a sapper's shovel.

We want to pay special attention to this aspect of hand-to-hand combat. The fact is that from one instruction to another, numerous melee techniques move, based on blows with fists, elbows, knees and feet, as well as on throws, painful twisting of the hands and suffocations. Meanwhile, weapons made of metal in their striking characteristics are many times superior to human limbs. A scout should ALWAYS have a knife ready and use it without any hesitation, in automatic mode. A well-honed sapper's shoulder blade, hanging on a loop around the wrist joint of the hand, is an even more powerful weapon than a knife. However, due to its size, it is possible to use it only on the condition that it was picked up in advance. This is not always convenient in the field. But the knife hanging on the belt (plus a couple of knives in the pockets behind the collar and at least one in the area of the hip-Shin) is the object that must plunge into the body of the enemy in the next moment after it appears within reach.

Work with a knife

The main type of cold weapon scout is a knife (special survival knife or knife scout shooting). The machine gun for hand-to-hand combat is not suitable: the stock is framed, folding; the magazine is plastic; the bayonet is not provided. Sapper shovel is not always available. Other types of cold weapons are not provided for in the staff schedule, except that the scout on his own initiative carries some kind of brass knuckles or a hatchet.

A scout's fight with a knife is not fencing, which is intended to demonstrate superiority over the enemy. On the contrary, working with a knife is designed to prevent the enemy from doing anything. Once started, the fight almost immediately ends, as there is simply no time for more in a fleeting melee. If the enemy could not attack first (confused for a moment, hesitated, was unarmed), the scout immediately deals him one or two fatal blows and switches to the next. If the enemy started the attack first, the scout must first hit the attacking limb with his knife, and then kill or seriously injure the enemy with the next move.

Thus, a knife fight begins either with a defense directed against the attacking limb of the opponent, or with an instant attack on the vital points of his body. Such a fight is simple and complex at the same time. It is simple because almost all blows and defenses with a knife coincide in their trajectories with blows and defenses with an unarmed hand, it is not difficult to master them. It is complex because, first, the knife must be felt as an inseparable part of the hand. Secondly, to work with a knife in a fleeting counter fight requires a lightning reaction. Third, all basic strokes need to be worked out to full automatism of movements – after all, their free combination is based on automatism, which plays a major role in the technique of working with a knife.

These points make working with a knife, although accessible, but at the same time time-consuming, in the sense of spending time on training by a scout. Well, it's worth it, the better a scout wields a knife,the more chances he has to destroy an unexpected enemy.

The three main principles of working with a knife are first of all speed, then accuracy of defeat and, finally, simplicity. Only compliance with these three principles can ensure one hundred percent effectiveness in a situation where the slightest mistake leads to the death of a scout. You can not be late in responding to the sudden appearance of the enemy, you can not use weak or unprocessed blows, you can not bet on complex techniques.

Since the knife is almost always in the scabbard, it is necessary to carefully practice its snatching to the level of reflex response. The very movement of snatching is purely individual, as it depends on the location of the scabbard, the height of the fighter, the length of his hands, the wearable clothing and equipment. Types of snatches are as follows:

- from the scabbard on the belt in front (left or right);

- from the scabbard on the hip (left or right);

- from the scabbard on the belt behind the back (left or right);

- from the sheath in the sleeve (on the left or right hand);

- from the scabbard behind the collar of clothing (usually throwing knives).

All types of snatching must be practiced not only on the spot, but also in motion, and snatching in motion is required first of all. This can be a step, a slope with a body movement, a jump, a run, or even a somersault in a fall. As for the strikes, they should be a development of the snatching trajectory and reach the maximum possible speed. Both are provided exclusively by long-term training. And it is necessary to combine working out blows with a combat knife on dummies or stuffed animals with working out blows on a partner with a rubber knife (not a wooden one). Those and other strikes should be made extremely quickly (not forgetting, of course, about accuracy). Situations in training with a partner should simulate a sudden counter-fight, first in the hall (on the training ground), and then mainly on the ground.

As for the points of defeat, when attacking from the front, the most effective techniques are jabs (stabbing blows) in the throat, stomach, and heart. Hitting the throat just below the Adam's Apple, the fighter cuts the jugular vein and death occurs almost instantly. A deep wound in the abdomen (it is better to apply two or three repeated blows) causes loss of consciousness from pain shock and death within a few minutes (if you do not provide timely medical care). Hitting the heart also leads to instant death, but here the impact must be not only accurate,but also strong, since the area of the heart is protected by the chest. Other areas of damage when attacking from the front are those mentioned above: the left and right hypochondrium (spleen and liver), the side of the neck.

For slashing and cutting blows, the main targets are the hands: the wrist and the elbow bend. You can also use them to attack your face, neck, and legs. Chopping and cutting blows to the hands are the basis of knife protection techniques. With their help, firstly, they achieve immobilization of the limb (and the ability to hold a weapon), and secondly, if the artery is damaged, a fatal outcome is possible. So, a blow to the wrist joint can cut the radial artery. As a result of pain shock and rapid blood loss, a person loses consciousness in 15-20 seconds, and dies in 1-2 minutes. A similar result is obtained by dissecting the bronchial artery passing over the inner part of the elbow. A slashing blow to the side of the neck can cut the carotid artery or aorta, which causes death within a few seconds. A blow to the leg from the inside of the thigh deprives the opponent of the ability to move, and if the wound is not treated, it is quite possible to die from a large loss of blood. Finally, any blows to the face cause the opponent to stagger back and cover the face with a reflex movement of the hands. This allows you to attack it in other vulnerable areas.

Under the simplicity of the technique of working with a knife, we mean the requirement to avoid intricate trajectories, "play" with the knife in your fingers, throw it from one hand to the other, make movements with it without the intention to hit the enemy (scare). Of course, you can and should freely combine attacks and defenses, thrusts and slashing and cutting movements. But the combination, firstly, is based solely on well-developed elementary trajectories, and secondly, you can not combine more than two, maximum three strokes in one movement.

The grip of the knife

There are two types of grip: the point of the blade up from the thumb (it is called "straight") and the point of the blade down from the little finger (the popular name is "reverse grip") (Fig. r33-34.gif). Regardless of the type of grip, the rule should be followed: the knife handle is located diagonally across the palm, and the grip force is concentrated in the ring formed by the ring finger and little finger. The index, middle, and thumb only slightly hold the weapon and point it at the target (for inexperienced fighters, the grip force is concentrated in these three fingers). With the reverse grip, it is also allowed to place the thumb on the end of the handle.

In either grip, the cutting side of the knife can be directed both outward from the wrist and inward to it. In the vast majority of cases, the blade should be directed to the outside of itself, "out". If you compare the advantages and disadvantages of direct and reverse grip, it should be emphasized that the reverse grip of the knife is better. It allows you to use a more diverse fighting technique due to hand movements. But if in the hands of a scout is not a knife, but a dagger (i.e. a blade with a double-sided sharpening), then of course a straight grip is preferable.

The main movement of changing the grip from forward to reverse, and Vice versa, consists in the practiced movement of the fingers and the entire wrist as a whole (Fig. r33-34.gif). You can't abuse it. First, you need to work to complete perfection, so that the knife can not fall out of your hand under any circumstances. And only having achieved the reliability of holding at the moment of changing the grip, you can try to apply this change in a training match.

The main ways

These include the following blows: stabbing (forward, up, down) with a straight grip, stabbing with a reverse grip (top, side, bottom up), as well as chopping and cutting with a straight grip (top down in a straight line and diagonally) and reverse. Only 10 types of strikes.

Stabbing with a knife point (poke) with a straight grip is the easiest to learn. At the same time, it is a very fast and short strike due to a straight trajectory.

Stabbing backhand attacks require increased attention when studying, since it is against them that most often directed techniques of disarming in most systems of hand-to-hand combat. Without their study, there can be no question of combining and free possession of a knife.

• Stabbing forward. This strike can be applied in two ways – the same name and a different name. The first option is stronger, the second - more quickly. The difference between them lies primarily in travel: if in the same fighter takes a step forward, then opposite just a small powerful thrust of hips and shoulders forward.

• Has passed stabbing blow up. For a poke up, the actual technique of straightening the striking limb remains unchanged. But it should be noted that the position of the legs is often higher than when pushing forward or down – this is due to the desire to put the weight of the body in the blow. In addition, the body weight is evenly distributed between the legs. Effective movement to defeat the throat, abdomen, and sides of the body at very close range.

• Stabbing down. The technique of the lower poke is no different from the forward poke, but it is directed not forward, but down. It is used as a natural extension after throwing the opponent to the ground, or for hitting the groin and thighs.

• Stabbing blow reverse grip from top to bottom. Taking the knife with the reverse grip, sharply swing it up at the level of the head (not higher, otherwise the balance will be disturbed) and immediately, without interrupting the General pace of movement, forcefully strike from top to bottom-forward, aiming to keep the tip of the knife in line with the direction of impact. Instantly return the knife to its previous position along the same path (this is only important when the real target – if the knife will change direction in the wound, it can get stuck in it and it will be very difficult to pull out, while the enemy is in agony can cause you a fatal blow).

• Cut the cutting movement of the knife give the fighter a large variety of actions – ranging from active protection with the cutting of the tendons and arteries in the hands and feet of the enemy to the powerful counter-blows to the neck and face.

• Diagonal blow from the bottom-up (reverse grip). This blow is almost similar to the previous one, but it is made from the right knee (or side) from the bottom-up-to the left. A very good blow, as it is difficult not only to predict in advance, but also just to notice. In the case of grabbing a hand with a knife by the opponent's hand, it is easy to cut it by simply turning the knife in the hand up. It is clear that for all cutting and dissecting blows, the knife must be sharpened to the sharpness of a razor. This blow is well combined with a stabbing blow from top to bottom: the end of one movement becomes the beginning of another.

• Direct blow from top to bottom. Take a big step forward with your left or right foot, while abruptly lowering the knife forward and down with your right hand from your right ear. The movement ends at hip level. Make sure that the blow is applied on a strictly vertical line – if performed correctly, the knife cuts through the air with a characteristic whistle.

• Diagonal strike from top to bottom. This blow is made on an oblique line across the body, for example, from the left ear to the right hip. It is very powerful (thanks to the twisting movement of the body muscles).

• Diagonal blow from the bottom-up (straight grip). From the initial position of "knife at the bottom of the left knee" with a sharp swing, strike from the bottom-up-to the right. At the moment of striking, the hand performing the movement should be arched up as much as possible, thereby putting additional force into the blow. This blow is convenient to hit the legs (thighs) and hands of the opponent, as well as the lower part of the abdomen.

• Dissecting blows in the horizontal plane. There are two main ways to apply a horizontal dissecting blow:

- dissecting blow from outside to inside;

- dissecting blow from the inside out.

When the first blow is applied, the main force of the blow originates in the turning movement of the elbow, which tends to the center. It feels necessary to achieve a whip-like, whipping feeling in the hand. The blade also unfolds during movement.

The reverse is a blow from the inside out in a horizontal plane. With a sharp swing movement, straightening the hand holding the weapon, apply a slashing blow, adding a small boost with the brush. Both strikes are most often made in combination: first from the right-to the left, and then on the signal from the left-to the right.

The most common practical uses of these strikes are:

- blow to the throat, neck or face;

- blow to the stomach;

- a blow to the tendons of the legs under the knees.

• The combination of strokes.

The easiest way to combine is to combine two strokes in one movement. In other words, the first blow should bring the knife to the starting position for the second blow. There should not be the slightest pause between the first blow and the second, otherwise the opponent may have time to seize the initiative and counterattack. Most often, the second blow repeats the trajectory of the first blow, only in the opposite direction. The grip may or may not change.

For example: a thrust top-down reverse grip – diagonal strike upwards with the same grip; cleave in a horizontal plane from right to left (outside to inside) is similar to a shot from inside-out; the diagonal hitting the bottom-up direct grip – a direct blow from the top down; bonded chest bump – bonder direct blow down, etc. In this case, it does not matter which stroke in the pair is the initial, and which is the final. They change places all the time.

Can be joined together and three strokes of the knife. But in this case, the third blow is recommended to be applied with a change of trajectory. For example: the fighter attacked the enemy slashing a direct kick from the top of the arm, it moved on a diagonal hitting the bottom-up (straight grip), and then did a thrust top-down reverse grip. The number of such combinations can be large. The main thing is that the elements that make up them (basic strikes) are few. The ten listed here are more than enough for a wide variety of short-range melee situations.

Knife strikes in hand-to-hand combat are often combined with blows of the elbows, knees, feet and head, with thrusts of the shoulders and hips, with grabs or blocks with the hands. However, in the presence of a knife, all such actions have only an auxiliary value. They are designed to distract the enemy's attention, force them to open up under the knife, and prevent them from using their own weapons.

The sequence of training with a knife

Training of personnel to work with a knife begins in a single-line formation. All trajectories of blows are worked out on the spot, with a step forward, to the right and to the left, with two steps and with a jump forward, with a step back. Then enter more complex positions: knife strikes on the move and on the run, as well as from the position of bending (crouching) at the moment of jumping up.

After the scouts have learned the General stereotypes of blows in the "air", they should proceed to practice them on stationary and swinging scarecrows. The next stage of training is working out combinations of blows in an open two-legged formation (facing each other) on the "paws". As" paws " use short sticks (about a meter long), one end of which is tied with straw or rags. Combat knives. The force of blows should be trained by applying them to the raw clay (in a box) and in old car tires.

The last stage of training with a knife is working out real combat situations: removing the sentry; a sudden collision with the "enemy" in a limited space (in a trench, in a room, in the forest, in underground communications); a knife fight with an enemy armed with a machine gun with a bayonet; armed with a sapper's shovel; armed with a knife. Knives for such classes are used not combat, and not wooden, but only rubber.

Blows with a sapper's shovel

In hand-to-hand combat, the small sapper shovel is used for both thrusting and slashing blows, as well as for throwing at the enemy. It is convenient to repel the attacks of bladed weapons (rifle with bayonet, the butt of the knife). A well-sharpened blade of a shovel can easily cut the throat, split the skull in two, separate the fingers from the hand, and make a strong poke in the stomach to the enemy harakiri.

Blows with the shoulder blade are made from the spot, on the lunge and in motion. Hold it by the end of the handle with a straight grip, that is, the metal part (bayonet) is directed up from the thumb. The reverse grip for working with the shoulder blade is rarely used, mainly for hitting the lower half of the human figure (legs and groin). Blows are taught on stuffed animals. Having learned them, they work them out on a suddenly exposed target, which is used as a pole with a large ball at the end (the ball is made of foam rubber, felt, tightly bound straw, etc.). the Training blade should be blunted. But the combat one is sharpened as much as possible and is necessarily provided with a strong loop passed through a hole in the upper third of the handle. The loop does not allow the shoulder blade to slip out of the hand in battle.

In principle, the trajectories of blows with the spatula are the same as for the knife: straight jabs, straight and diagonal blows from top to bottom, dissecting blows in a horizontal plane. Even stabbing blows from top to bottom can also be performed with it, if the situation requires it.

The strokes of the machine

Automatic – weapons fire. But in a sudden collision with the enemy head-on, you will not always have time to shoot from it, and often you can not, so as not to make a fuss. Then it is not much different from a stick in its combat capabilities. It is even more convenient to fight with a stick than with a machine gun.

The main thing that distinguishes the technique of blows and pokes with a stick (automatic) from a knife and a shovel is that it is held with both hands, a wide grip.

Another difference is that a stick (machine gun) requires a greater distance to fight than a knife or spatula. The basic principle of fighting with a stick is as follows: on the legs to conduct podsekayuschie blows, in the body and in the head – poke, on the hands – chopping. Scouts must firmly learn that when trying to hit with a stick (automatic) from above or at the level of the face, the enemy often manages to substitute his hands. Therefore, "knock out" it with one or two blows will not work, in addition, there will inevitably be noise: shouting, stomping, scuffling. Therefore, the first blows should be applied with the butt, in the stomach or in the groin. Then the opponent will not have time to scream, he will settle on the ground and it will be possible to finish him off a little later with a blow of the butt in the throat or in the temple already on the ground.

It is also necessary to practice poking blows with the barrel of a machine gun without a bayonet.

The best way to practice techniques for using a machine gun as a cold weapon is to engage in stick fighting with partners and on stuffed animals. All strikes from the very beginning should be made slowly at first, then, as you increase your training and learn combinations for two or three actions, speed up the pace. Again, we pay special attention to this fact, because there are a number of experts who still insist on the importance of training scouts in bayonet combat. They say that the us marine corps is engaged in it, etc., etc. However, what kind of scouts are they, if they go to the bayonet attack? And what forces? Seven men against a platoon? We will not consider the technique of stick fighting here, since there is an extensive literature on this issue in Russian and other languages.

Protection from cold arms

The most likely for scouts is a sudden encounter with enemy soldiers from conventional (non-intelligence) units. They will most likely be armed with assault rifles with or without bayonets. They are less likely to use pistols and submachine guns as cold weapons. Therefore, it is necessary to devote time to studying techniques for repelling enemy attacks with a bayonet and a butt with your bare hands.

All these techniques are based on the same principles. Leaving the line of attack with a step to the left or right, turning the body to the right (at a step to the left) or to the left (at a step to the right), repelling the weapon in the opposite direction and capturing it. Then produce any blow (for example, the edge of the palm in the throat, the toe of the boot in the groin) and try to knock the opponent to the ground. As an option-to twist the weapon out of his hands (when falling, he usually releases it himself) or at least hit him in the head with the butt. At the end of the reception, the enemy is finished off on the ground with the butt, bayonet, leg, knife.

We do not consider numerous methods of protection from the threat of a gun and from knife attacks. They are filled with all the instructions on Sambo wrestling, hand-to-hand combat, and self-defense. As follows from the above, if an army intelligence officer needs them, it is not in the first place and not even in the second, but only in the third.

Knife throwing

What is a throwing knife?   

First, it is a perfectly balanced blade and handle, and the blade can be even slightly heavier, which is used when throwing the knife point forward at short distances.

Second, a throwing knife often has a hole in the handle or a ring for attaching the rope.  In this case, if you miss, you can pull the knife back, and when you hit the target, the rope allows you to use the knife as a harpoon and either hold the prey or climb an obstacle.  Third, a throwing knife often does not have a guard, because it violates the balance (the balance between the blade and the handle).

Fourth, a throwing knife is usually used in pairs. A pair can be either mixed or homogeneous, that is, one in which both knives are intended only for throwing or for working with hands. In a mixed pair, there are both throwing and ordinary knives.

Knife throwing is an art, which the scout-the saboteur must possess in perfection. When solving combat tasks, throwing a knife can hit the enemy at a distance of up to 10 meters or more. However, such throwing requires persistent training.

Throwing a knife at an opponent is considered appropriate if the opponent attacks, approaches, runs away, and does not see or expect an attack. If the opponent is waiting for a knife throw, the throw distance should not exceed 3-4 meters, so that the opponent can not evade.

The penetrating power of the knife when it is thrown is almost twice as great as when it is struck. Experiments have shown that when stabbing a Board with a knife, the subjects break through a tree by 16-17 mm, and throwing the same weapon-by 27-28 mm.

If the enemy is approaching, then for protection throwing a knife is taken near the end of the blade. And Vice versa, to hit from a greater distance, the grip should be closer to the handle.

The main distance of combat use of cold weapons for confident defeat of the enemy is 5-6 meters (steps) and closer. The opponent in this case receives a blow without having time to Dodge, deviate, sit down, fall, close. The target can be hit from 10 m, but requires accurate calculation of the distance and multiple rotation of the weapon in flight, the enemy can avoid defeat during this time.

Throwing a knife from above. The knife is held by the blade with the right hand, the handle forward. Thumb along the top of the blade. Starting position: left-hand stand. To swing, move your right hand up and back without bending your wrists. With a push of the right foot and a turn of the body to the left, send the knife to the target with the handle forward and release it at the moment of full straightening of the hand, when it is aimed exactly at the target.

Basic requirements: mandatory fixation of the hand in the wrist joint. The weapon axis must be an extension of the forearm axis. This is necessary to avoid additional extensor movement of the hand at the time of release of the weapon, which leads to a disorderly rotation of the knife in flight. Even when throwing, you should avoid excessive tension of the fingers and pinning the hand in the elbow and shoulder joints. When releasing the weapon, you should aim at the target with your thumb nail and avoid whipping the brush, as well as not "fall" down the hand below the target level after releasing the knife. When released, the knife should slide along the thumb in the direction of the target.

The sequence of learning how to throw a knife:

- learn how to hold the knife and the starting position before throwing;

- learn the swing and technique of throwing a knife without releasing it from your hands;

- throwing a knife from the spot to the target (increasing the distance);

- throwing a knife in motion.

Throwing a knife from below. For this purpose, a left-hand combat stance is adopted. The half-bent left arm is positioned in front of the chest. The correct grip of the knife is of great importance. For a long throw (7-10 m), it is taken by the handle with the blade towards the shoulder. When throwing at 5-7 m, the grip is carried out for the blade.

In the lowered right hand, the knife is directed with the handle down; the blade is pressed back with four fingers to the palm (the cutting part from the palm), and the thumb fixes it in front (towards the throw). It is important that the knife is one axis with the forearm, because the brush is drawn back a little down (Fig. r70.gif).

For throwing, you need to move your right hand back-up, slightly turning the body to the right-back. Then, without bending the arm with the knife at the elbow, gently swing the body forward and perform a bottom-up-forward swing with the hand, without overflowing the brush. At the moment when the forearm with the knife form a straight line to the target, release the blade. At the same time, the knife makes half a turn. It is released in such a way that at the time of departure, the blade slides from above on the fingers of the hand. At first, they throw smoothly, achieving the accuracy of hitting and sticking the blade. As you master the technique, the throw is performed more sharply.

The most common mistakes are: whipping the brush up and untimely release of the knife.

Throwing a knife from behind cover. To remove the sentry, as well as when performing other special tasks, the enemy is defeated from behind cover. The main thing here is secrecy and surprise. As a rule, two main methods of throwing are used: from the top and from the side. More reliable-from above. In this case, the thrower appears for a few seconds from behind the shelter and accurately determines the distance to the goal and the strength of the throw. It is very important that at the time of the reception, the right hand is already in the fighting position (in front of the chest); or the appearance from behind the shelter and the throw must coincide. It all depends on the situation.

Throwing a knife from a lying position. There are several ways. The most common: from behind the head and lying on the side. For throwing from behind the head, the knife grip is performed as when throwing from above. Taking the knife in this way, it is necessary to raise the body slightly above the ground, leaning slightly on the left hand. Then, making a swing with the right hand with the knife up and back, simultaneously lowering the torso and straightening the right arm, hit the target. The knife is released when it, the hand, and the direction of the target form a straight line. The distance to the target and the number of revolutions of the knife are selected individually. It is most effective to use a special knife that flies to the goal without turning. It differs from the usual weighted to the edge of the blade and a handle in the form of feathers. Mercury is used in the modern manufacture of such propellants. Such a knife always flies the blade forward.
The grip of the throwing knife on the side is the same as when throwing from the side. This throw is more unexpected than the previous one. To throw, you need to lie on your left side, put your left hand with the palm of your hand on the ground in front of your chest. The body should lie in such a way that the left leg is straight, and the right, bent at the knee, rests on the ground. The right hand with the knife is stretched along the body, and the shoulder is raised 25-20 cm above the ground. To hit a target at a distance of 5-7 m or more, you must abruptly, sideways in an arc, send your hand towards the target, releasing the weapon when the straight arm and knife form a straight line to the enemy. When leaving the hand, the knife should slide over the fingers. In any case, do not allow the brush to lash. This is contraindicated in all methods of throwing a knife.

Throwing a knife in a somersault. When hitting a target in a somersault, as a rule, throwing a knife from above is used. To perform this technique, first work out the somersault itself well. Then learn how to throw a knife without jumping in a somersault. This is done as follows. Phase one. Sit down so that your left hand touches the floor with your fingers, and your right hand with the knife is bent at the elbow in front of your chest. Pull your torso back a little, lifting your left hand off the floor, swing, then swing forward and throw the knife. After its release, the right hand continues to move down the arc and becomes a support for the somersault. After a somersault over your head, take the starting position. Gradually, the conditions for working out the reception become more complicated. At the second stage, you need to make a somersault forward with throwing from a standing position. Then put a small obstacle between the goal and the starting line. For example, a stool or chair. Moreover, the distance from the obstacle to the target should guarantee hitting the target. A short run of 4-5 steps is made. During the jump, namely at the moment of maximum separation of the body from the ground, the knife is thrown at the target. Then, grouped together, you roll over your head. The difficulty here is that the student when running focuses not on throwing, but on somersaulting. Therefore, often the thrower either does not have time to throw the knife, or does it too late. In any case, the goal remains unaffected. As you practice, the jump should be shorter and shorter. It then ranges from mostly high to long jump.

The knife attack

The common part. The knife is an indispensable weapon for actions in the combat position of the enemy, during reconnaissance, silent removal of sentries, that is, in direct contact with the enemy.

How to hold a knife in your hand. The correct position of the knife in the hand is a very important detail in handling it. Place the handle of the knife across your outstretched palm. Grab it so that your thumb and forefinger wrap around the neck of the safety bar, and the middle finger-the thickened part of the handle. By controlling the knife and the index and middle fingers, as well as the position of the wrist, you can freely strike in any direction. From the "knife in the right hand palm up" position, you can strike left and right. From the "knife in the right hand palm down" position, the blow is applied in any direction. When you strike the handle of the knife hold it tight.

Combat stance with a knife. Before attacking an opponent with a knife, your stance should be the same as the "ready" stance, the difference is only in the position of your right hand, which is lowered with the knife down, along the right leg (the blade is directed down). Left hand raised. You protect yourself from the enemy's blows with it, and by moving it to different positions, you try to force it to open vulnerable places. With your left hand, you can simulate throwing an object towards the opponent.

Stabbing from the front. When stabbed from the front, the opponent will instinctively protect the stomach and chest. If you wound it in one of these places, its fear will be so great that it will lose the ability to defend itself and you can easily destroy it.

Improved combat stance with a knife. In this production, you hide the knife behind the right leg until the moment of impact.

A blow to the throat. The throat of the opponent can be hit with a slashing blow from the shoulder and a direct stab of the knife. The injection is more effective when you apply it to the base of the pharynx, just below the Adam's Apple. Death will occur instantly if you cut the opponent's jugular vein. A blow from the shoulder to the side of the neck will cut the carotid artery that feeds the brain with blood. The result is death in a few seconds.

Punch in the stomach. With a combined blow (slashing from the shoulder and a direct stab) to the abdomen, you will disable the opponent, and then finally finish him. A deep wound will cause death if immediate medical attention is not provided.

A blow to the heart. Blow inflicted by a knife in the heart, instantly causing death. But it is well protected by the chest, and only a strong blow can hit it.

The defeat of the wrist. With a slashing blow to the wrist, you will cut the radial artery, which is only 1/4 inch removed from the skin at this point (loss of consciousness occurs in 30 seconds, death in 1-2 minutes). A slap on the wrist is especially convenient to apply when the opponent tries to make a grab of your clothes or hands.

A blow to the shoulder. A slashing blow to the shoulder (just above the inside of the elbow) causes death within 2 minutes (the opponent loses consciousness after 15 seconds). As a result, the bronchial artery is dissected, passing at this point 1/2 inch from the skin.

Leg injury. A blow with the blade on the inside of the leg (at the perineum) cuts the arteries and deprives the opponent of the ability to move.

Kidney damage. With one hand, strike the blade on the kidney, and the other simultaneously hold the nose and mouth of the opponent. Then remove the knife from the wound (rotating it inside) and cut his larynx. A blow to the kidney causes internal hemorrhage and then death.

A blow to the side of the neck. This strike is very convenient for the silent removal of sentries, when it is necessary to maintain silence, etc.

The defeat of the larynx. With a slashing blow to the larynx, you cut the windpipe and jugular vein.

Damage to the subclavian artery. The subclavian artery is located 2.5 inches from the skin in the area of the clavicle. When striking, hold the handle of the knife as if you are using an ice pick. At the moment of removing the knife from the wound, make them move to the sides, if you manage to do this, the enemy will bleed out and die...

Throwing knives and sapper shovels

Unacceptably little attention is paid in the manuals to the description of the technique of throwing weapons and objects. We tried to correct this error.

Simple methods of throwing a knife, small shovel and axe. One of the special techniques of hand-to-hand combat is throwing cold weapons and improvised items to defeat the enemy at a distance of 5 to 12 m. Most often, the technique is used to silently remove sentries and defeat the enemy fleeing from pursuit, when there is no other way to effectively influence it. Special skills require the ability to hit the enemy throwing cold weapons at night (in the dark) and sound (flash).

In group hand-to-hand combat, throwing cold weapons is used only in exceptional cases.

Knife throwing technique. The most common method of throwing a knife is by grabbing the blade (the blade blade). For throwing this way, you need to take the right hand blade of the knife so that the handle was directed forward, the blade to the left of the palm, the thumb lay on top of the knife, and its axis was a continuation of the axis of the forearm; the other fingers hold the knife from below, without squeezing it hard and not touching the edge of the blade.

For throwing it is necessary to adopt a left stance: right hand in front of chest, forearm vertical (elbow bent at 90 degrees), the handle of the knife is directed upward, left arm slightly bent and is ahead in a relaxed state. It is very important to be calm. You can not, as they say, get hung up – really want to hit the target. Before throwing, relax your body, bend your knees, and breathe with your lower abdomen (i.e., not with your chest, but with your diaphragm).

Then, bending in the lower back, swing your hand up and back over your shoulder, without bending your wrists. Keeping on the same line as the axis of the forearm, thumb and blade, abruptly straightening up in the lower back and straightening the arm, with no additional effort send brush knife arm at the target so that the blade was produced in a moment of complete straightening of the hands, aimed at the lines of flight of the target.
The main requirement is not to allow the hand to be whipped (with a brush) and not to "fall" the hand down below the target level after releasing the knife. When released, the knife should slide along the thumb in the direction of the target. During the throw, a slight exhalation is made.

With this method of throwing a knife (size 25-30 cm) at a distance of 5-8 m, the blade makes half a turn. The accuracy of the hit largely depends on what place you hold the blade. The greater the distance to the target, the closer the thumb is to the handle, and Vice versa. The optimal distance for throwing, the place of grip for the blade, the starting position each determines for himself during training.

Another method of throwing is also used, when the knife is held by the handle in its original position with four fingers on the bottom right, the thumb on the side on the left, and the point of the blade is directed up and forward. This is how it is done. From the left-hand stand, perform a swing of the hand up, back behind the head, while the shoulder belt turns to the right, the left arm is bent in front of the chest. Push the right leg and turn the torso to the left, gradually accelerating the movement of the hand from behind the shoulder to send the knife to the target. In this way, it is affected at a distance of 8-10 m. Again, everyone chooses their own distance individually. As in the first method – after releasing the knife, the brush should be aimed at the target.

The technique of throwing a small spade. Sometimes, in hand-to-hand combat, it is necessary to hit or injure the enemy at a distance of 5-7 m with a small shovel. To do this, from the left-hand combat stance, holding the shovel for the far third of the handle (handle) with the blade forward-up (the handle along the axis of the forearm), make a swing up-back behind the head, turning the body to the right. Then, abruptly straightening the arm and turning the torso to the left, throw the shovel at the target, releasing the handle from the palm at the moment when the hand straightened and the shovel is aimed at the target. In this case, the shovel makes one turn to the goal. It is necessary to lean forward slightly during the throw, as if accompanying the shovel to the goal. At the same time, a sharp exhalation is made. The most common mistake with this method is a strong hand-down slam. Then the projectile makes an uncontrolled number of turns, which reduces the probability of an accurate hit with the tip of the shovel. Another mistake – when swinging the shovel often goes to the side, and not up-back. Then it usually flies past the target,

The other way is secretive. It is used for sudden defeat of the enemy. It is necessary to stand up to the goal with the left side; with the right hand, hold the shovel for the far third of the handle. The hand is lowered along the body with the point of the shovel down. To throw, you should sharply tilt your torso to the left and simultaneously, without bending your arm at the elbow, arc the shovel over your head to the target. The shovel is released at the moment of maximum torso tilt, when it is aimed at the target. For longer distances (10-12 m), the shovel is thrown in two turns.

Technique of throwing an axe. The axe has been used as a weapon for a long time. Perhaps, this is one of the oldest throwing tools. The range of the axe throw depends on the length of the axe handle. Tomahawks (weapons of the Indians) were thrown at a distance of 20-30 m due to the length of the handle.

To throw an axe, you need to stand in a left-hand combat stance. With the right hand, take the axe by the handle (the upper third of the axe handle) and raise your hand so that the point of the axe is at chest level. Left hand in front of the chest. Lower the right hand slightly so that the ax handle becomes a continuation of the forearm. Then, bending in the lower back, pull the right hand up and back, without bending the wrist. Keeping the axis of the axe and the forearm on the same line, it is necessary, powerfully straightening up in the lower back and lowering the hand, without a sharp jerk with the brush to send the axe to the enemy. The axe handle is released at the moment when it forms a straight line with the forearm to the goal.

The main thing is not to allow the brush to lash and not to fail the hand below the target level after releasing the axe. During such a throw, the axe makes one turn to the goal. The range of throwing depends on what place the axe is held. The greater the distance to the target, the closer the hand is to the axe. Another method of throwing is from below.

The axe is taken so that when the hand is lowered, the blade is directed forward. Starting position-left-hand combat stance.

To throw you, turning the body right, to take omitted a straight right hand back-up and after push your right foot to smoothly rotate the body left-forward, with the power to swing a hand axe from the bottom up. When you combine the Axel – forearm axis, the goal is to release the Axel. With this throw, the axe also makes one turn. The method provides for the suddenness.

Use of improvised items in hand-to-hand combat. A belt, helmet, cap, stick, stones, metal plates, pieces of broken glass, loose materials, and the like can at the right time become a means of protection, injury, or short-term incapacitation of the enemy.

The waist belt can be used both for blows, and for protection from a bayonet prick, and when attacking with a knife; the Trouser belt – for whipping the eyes, strangling, binding, and other techniques.

Metal plates and pieces of broken glass (side sizes 10-12 cm) are used for throwing at 7-8 m. They throw them like a knife or a shuriken. For training, 4 – 6-carbon sharpened plates are made, which are thrown in the classroom on wooden boards.

A stick can protect you from being armed with a bayonet or a knife. If at the time of the attack of an armed enemy at hand was only loose material (sand, cement, crumbs, road dust, salt, fire ashes), you need to take it in both hands and when approaching the enemy sharply throw it in the face, and then immediately conduct one of the techniques of disarming. In extreme cases, you can spray some liquid in the face of the enemy. The effect is more significant, the more unexpected these actions are for the enemy.

Complex methods of throwing a knife, a sapper's shovel and an axe. There are a lot of ways to defeat the enemy with various throwing means. Almost every nation, depending on its national traditions and culture, has its own throwing secrets. Most often, they are inherited or passed on to worthy students. Nevertheless, there are ways of throwing a knife, inherent in most military traditions, regardless of national characteristics. These methods are universal.

Throwing a knife at the flash and sound. Let's make a reservation right away – not everyone can do these techniques. To master them, it is necessary, in addition to perseverance, willpower and patience, to have an excellent reaction, speed and intuition. Most often, a knife is used to hit the target, which flies without turns. At first, using a special simulator, they learn to simply get into a sound or light source. Start performing this exercise from a short distance (3-5 m), facing the simulator in the dark. After a confident hit on the target (9-10 out of 10), the simulator is turned to the right or left side, continuing to hit the target. Only then do they really start throwing a knife. To hit the target you need instantly, from any location and by any method (top, bottom, sideways, swinging, jumping). In other words, we are talking about a very high-class skill.

Throwing a sapper's shovel. Use both small and large sapper shovel. The big one can be thrown like a spear at a distance of 3 to 7 m. Take a left-hand combat stance with your left arm bent in front of your chest. With your right hand, take the shovel closer to the metal part and bring it to the right shoulder. To throw, move your hand with the shovel pointing the point forward-to the right side. Then, abruptly pushing off with your right foot and powerfully turning your body to the left-forward, straighten your arm and, like a spear, send the shovel forward. After the throw, the right foot takes a step forward by inertia.

Often, to stop a fleeing enemy, both a large and small sapper shovel is used to hit his legs. In this case, the shovel is used like a bat in "towns". Throw from the left-hand post. Grip – for the end of the handle. The arm is moved to the side back along with the torso turning to the right. After a push with the right foot, the shovel is thrown at the target from the side. The number of revolutions is selected individually. A small sapper shovel makes more turns. This should be taken into account.

Throwing a small sapper shovel from behind cover, lying down and in a somersault. The technique of mastering this kind of throws is identical to that of the knife. In a combat situation, throwing a sapper shovel is performed quite rarely: first, because of its large size, and secondly, it is simply not always available. The knife is more convenient and versatile. Nevertheless, it is useful to master all possible methods of throwing a shovel. At one "perfect moment" it can save your life.

The same applies to various methods of throwing an axe, including in a jump followed by a somersault. Among other things, a person has his own attachments and inclinations. Everyone chooses their favorite weapon and the most acceptable method of throwing. However, this does not exclude, but involves mastering the rest of the rich Arsenal of combat techniques.

At the beginning of the great Patriotic war, partisan detachments and underground groups often used ordinary stones as weapons. Hatred of the invaders and a desire for revenge allowed them to master these weapons of the ancients in a short time. Throwing stones was also part of the training of army frontline saboteurs-scouts along with other skills in handling weapons and objects. Various "hidden" methods of throwing stones, knives and objects were also studied, for example, from the sleeve, from behind the collar, as well as using metal tools for throwing.

Pain points and techniques for defeating the enemy in hand-to-hand combat

And here is what is written about vulnerable areas in the combat manual of the "green berets".

Vulnerable areas of the human body Are those parts of the body that are most sensitive to shocks. The ability to hit them, aggressiveness and confidence of your actions will ensure victory in hand-to-hand combat.

Body part. The body is divided into three main parts: the head and neck; the trunk; and the limbs. The most vulnerable places include: ears, temple, eyes, nose, upper lip, chin, Adam's Apple, base of the pharynx, nape; collarbone, armpits, solar plexus, abdomen, perineum, false rib, kidneys, vertebral column; fingers, wrist, elbow, shoulder, knee, ankle, leg lift.

Warning. To disable or kill a person, it requires a very small pressure or blow on a vulnerable spot. Keep this in mind when training with your teammates as the enemy.

Striking an opponent's head or neck. Fold your fingers so that they take a Cup-shaped shape, and hit them hard on the ears of the opponent. This is a dangerous technique – the eardrums may burst, a nervous shock or internal hemorrhage may occur.

A blow to the temple. A blow struck by the edge of the palm or the pad of the fist on the temple causes immediate death or concussion. In this part of the head, the cranial bone is very thin and, in addition, the large nerve and artery are located close to the skin. You can also hit the temple with a bent elbow. If you manage to knock your opponent down, hit him in the temple with the toe of your boot.

A blow to the eyes. There are several techniques for striking the eyes. Here is one of them: place the middle and index fingers with the letter Y and hit them hard on the eyes of the opponent. At the moment of impact, keep your fingers and wrist straight. A blow to the eyes can also be applied with the second joints of two adjacent fingers.

A blow to the nose. The blow to the nose is applied with the edge of the palm (on the bridge of the nose). With a sharp blow, you will shatter the cartilage of the bridge of the nose, fragments of which can penetrate the brain and cause instant death. The blow can also be applied with the outer part of the tightly clenched fist and the base of the palm.

A blow to the upper lip. The upper lip is the most vulnerable part of the body. At this point, the nasal cartilage fuses with the cranial bone, and the nerves pass close to the skin. The blow is applied with the edge of the palm at a slight upward angle. A strong blow causes a concussion, a weak one – severe pain.

Jab on the chin The greatest effectiveness is achieved when hitting the base of the palm. You can break your arm if you hit your chin with your fist.

A blow to the Adam's Apple. The blow to the Adam's Apple is applied with the edge of the palm. A strong blow breaks the windpipe and causes death, a weaker blow leads to suffocation. You can squeeze and then pull out the windpipe with your fingers, which also results in maximum efficiency. In addition, a blow to the Adam's Apple can be applied with a fist, toe or knee, depending on the position of the opponent.

A blow to the base of the throat. A blow made with one or two extended fingers on the pit of the base of the pharynx can quickly disable the opponent. The reception is very painful. It usually causes severe coughing and choking. The impact reaches maximum effectiveness when the skin and body tissue are disturbed at this point.

Blow to the neck (left, right side of it). If you hit your opponent on the neck with the edge of your hand, you can cause them to lose consciousness. The blow is applied below and just in front of the ear, in two ways: from the left (palm down) or frontally from the shoulder (palm up). The impact is not life-threatening and leads to loss of consciousness only when it falls on the jugular vein, carotid artery or vagus nerve.

A blow to the back of the head. A blow with the edge of the hand to the back of the head (rabbit blow) can cause instant death or lead to dislocation of the cervical vertebrae. If the opponent turns out to be a weak opponent (who is not proficient in hand-to-hand combat techniques), you can hit him on the back of the head with the outer edge of your fist. If you manage to knock your opponent down, hit him on the back of the head with the toe of your Shoe, heel, or edge of your hand.

A blow to the collarbone. A strong blow with the edge of your hand on the collarbone can break it, and the opponent will fall to his knees. If he is shorter than you, you can hit with a bent elbow, such a blow will be more effective than the edge of the palm.

A blow to the solar plexus. The solar plexus is located below the chest, just below the breast bone. The blow is delivered with a "pointed fist", which is more effective than a blow with the edge of the palm. The blow causes severe pain and causes the opponent to lean forward or kneel. A very sharp blow to the solar plexus can lead to death.

A blow to the armpit. At this point, the large nerve is located close to the skin, and a blow delivered here causes severe pain and temporarily paralyzes the opponent. If you manage to knock him down, hit him in the armpit with the toe of your boot.

Punch in the stomach. With a punch to the opponent's stomach, you will completely weaken them. If he then leans forward, apply a knee to the face or the edge of the palm to the back of the head. However, a blow to the stomach with the knuckles of the fingers is more effective than an elbow. No less effective is a kick in the stomach with the toe of a Shoe.

Kick in the crotch. In hand-to-hand combat, always remember that the most convenient place to strike is the enemy's crotch. You can hit with your knee, fist, palm edge, or toe. You can just forcefully grab the crotch with your hand and pull on yourself and to the side. A blow to the crotch puts the opponent out of action.

A blow to the kidneys. At this point, the large nerve (a branch from the vertebral column) comes close to the skin. A blow to the kidneys causes nervous shock and even death if the victim is not immediately treated. The blow is applied with the edge of the palm, the second joints of the fingers, the edge of the fist, the knee or the toe of the Shoe.

Hit a false edge. The false edge is hit both from the front and back, but it will be more effective if you hit it from the right side of the opponent. Beat with the edge of the palm, the edge of the fist, the second joints of the fingers, the heel, toe or knee.

A blow to the spinal column. A blow to this part of the torso will paralyze or cause death. A strong blow can dislodge the vertebrae of the post. Hit 3-4 inches above the lower back (where the spine is most vulnerable) with your knee, elbow, or boot if you manage to knock your opponent down.

Damage to the fingers. To free yourself from the grip from behind (the opponent's hands are under your armpits), firmly squeeze the fingers of one of his hands, and the other hand grab the wrist of this hand. By pressing your wrist vigorously while pulling your fingers back, you will free yourself from the grip and twist your opponent's fingers.

The scrapping of the wrist. A sharp pull of the wrist in any direction will cause the opponent severe pain. To do this, place your thumbs on the back of your opponent's hand and move it at right angles to the forearm. In this position, the enemy is helpless.

Defeat of the elbow joint. The elbow joint is a weak spot and if you make a strong impact on it, you can dislocate it. Make a grab of the opponent's wrist or forearm, apply a sharp blow with the base of the palm, the edge of the palm, or the knee to the elbow joint, and sharply pull the wrist (forearm) back.

Shoulder dislocation. Knock your opponent down, place your knee on his shoulder and twist his arms back – you will dislocate his shoulder. In this position, you can use a blow to the spine, which usually leads to a fatal outcome.

A blow to the knee. The kick is applied to the knee, side of the knee, or kneecap with the edge of the boot. With this technique, you will deprive the opponent of the ability to move, damaging the ligaments of the knee joint and crushing the cartilage. When attacking from behind, the kick is applied with the toe of the boot to the knee bend, which also puts the opponent out of action (the nervous system is affected).

A kick to the ankle. Strike with the outer edge of the boot perpendicular to the outside of the ankle. Never use the toe of a Shoe when hitting the ankle, which may slip off and not cause any harm to the opponent.

Kick to the instep. When facing an opponent face-to-face, use the edge of the left foot boot to lift the opponent's left foot or Vice versa. This will shatter the small bones of the leg lift and at the same time protect your perineum from being hit.

Defeat vulnerable areas with weapons that you have at the moment. Remember, even when you do not have a service weapon, you are able to hit the enemy with any object that will be at your fingertips.

The handle of the bayonet. Place it in your hand so that the base of the handle protrudes slightly from your hand. In this case, you have a blunt weapon, which is especially convenient when striking the head.

Homemade baton. Fill an ordinary sock with raw sand or place a bar of soap in it, tie it along the top edge of the sand (bar of soap), and you will get a good fighting tool. A blow with such a club is usually applied to the back of the head.

Blunt object. With a blunt force blow to the spine (between the shoulder blades), you can silently eliminate the enemy. Use the butt of an axe, the butt of a rifle, and other items for this purpose.

Other item. Do not despair if you face the enemy unarmed. Quickly find something from the trench tool or pick up a stone or stick and boldly engage in a duel.

(based on the materials of «Энциклопедии безопасности» Громова В.И. и Васильева Г.А., Москва, 1998).

 

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