Weapon psychology

Breadcrumbs EN

The most perfect weapon is unable to fulfill its purpose-the destruction of the enemy-without its main "detail" – a person. And the effectiveness of the use of weapons is determined primarily by the degree of training of the shooter, one of the most important components of which is psychological training.

There are two main types of human reaction to danger – stupor and active. With a stupor reaction, a person under a real threat falls into a stupor, shrinks into a ball and freezes in place, or becomes extremely slow and awkward, loses the ability to assess the situation and take any actions to eliminate the threat. With an active reaction, the threat mobilizes the person, he is able to perform actions that he is simply not able to do in a calm state. I have given two extreme manifestations of the reaction to danger, in psychology this gradation is much broader, those interested in this issue refer to textbooks on psychology, for example, YV Scherbatykh "psychology of stress and methods of correction". For us, it is crucial to understand that people's differences in response to threats are based on the level of physiology. People with an active type of reaction are born warriors, who by nature have a mechanism for active and effective actions to counter the threat, but they are a minority. For people with a stupor reaction, the condition for survival in combat is the formation of a powerful motivational base for action in the course of training, which can overcome the physiological reaction. When training a shooter, the ultimate goal of a live shooting course is the ability to effectively use your weapon in real combat.

It is well known that the human psyche undergoes numerous changes in combat, but few people realize how deep and destructive these manifestations are. According to statistics, only 25% of fighters consciously use the technical skills obtained as a result of preliminary training in real combat conditions. In combat, the human psyche changes as if under the influence of a powerful narcotic, which, by the way, happens – in a stressful situation, the body releases hormones into the blood, their effect is comparable to the most powerful drugs. Everything changes – the perception of information, the mechanism of decision-making, sensitivity to pain, etc. There is a so – called "tunnel vision" – the fighter perceives only one object-the source of immediate danger, he is not able to catch and understand any other information. The activity of the left hemisphere of the brain, responsible for abstract logical thinking, is suppressed. A person loses the ability to logically assess the situation and its development. This is, if I may say so, the physiological component of psychological training. But there is also a worldview component, no less important and cost the life of more than one who got into battle unprepared. A normal person brought up in a normal family, normal society learns from childhood the postulate about the value of human life, the inadmissibility of encroaching on the life and health of another person. War in its essence initially contradicts all the principles of peaceful life, the system of values on it is radically different from the one that operates in peaceful life. Preparing a warrior for a rapid transition to a state of war (and back again, too) is one of the most important problems of psychological training. Taking into account the fact that weapons, as a tool of destruction, are equally dangerous for others and for their own, we can talk about three main problems of the practice of psychological training of the shooter:

  • fear of shooting a person (fear of blood);
  • fear of weapons and shots;
  • formation of the skill of constant (on" automatic") weapon control.

The ranking of problems by importance corresponds to the order in which they are listed, and the importance of the first problem significantly exceeds the importance of the other two.

These problems are faced by everyone who has ever engaged in combat training, and there are as many ways to solve it as there are teachers. However, all these approaches can be divided into three large groups:

  • direct training method;
  • method of "hard programming";
  • the "soft programming" method.

This division is quite conditional, since all serious training schools use elements of each of the methods to some extent, it is more about the percentage of these methods in the educational process.

Methods of direct training are very popular among various terrorist organizations that profess a misanthropic ideology, in which the life of an individual, especially one who does not belong to the organization, is of no value. The German fascists were no strangers to such methods. In the training of young SS men there was practice in concentration camps, participation in "executions" of prisoners.

To overcome violations of abstract-logical thinking in stressful situations the fight is "driving" to the subconscious level of motor skills standard reactions in a typical combat situation by re (on the order of 5000 times the recommended Israeli infantry school) recurrence. This system works perfectly in 9 cases out of 10, but there is a tenth – atypical case-when the standard response is ineffective, not corresponding to the development of events. And here there is a need to analyze the situation, develop an optimal solution that allows the most complete and effective solution to the situation. Since, as mentioned above, in a state of combat stress, a person's capabilities of consciousness and, above all, abstract-logical thinking are significantly reduced, the solution suggests itself – to transfer the algorithm for evaluating the situation and developing an optimal solution to the level of the subconscious. It sounds a bit wild from the point of view of classical psychology – processes of abstract logical thinking at the level of reflexes, but this approach is implemented in the Russian combat system.

The author of this technique, which he called "the method of self-paroling", was Sergey V. Vishnevetsky. Its main difference is reflected in the name-a person forms his own internal, subconscious programs, which, with this approach, quite naturally correspond to his conscious worldview. The method solves two main problems – the development of subtle human perceptions and on this basis, the creation of a system for monitoring the environment and the state of your body and the formation of algorithms at the subconscious level that provide an adequate response to any threat. The problem of "fear of blood" is solved here due to the adequacy of the response – having the ability to assess not only the presence, but also the degree of threat due to developed sensory perception, a person determines the necessary level of damage inflicted on the enemy. In addition, they are brought up (consciously!) worldview positions for overcoming the fear of death, which are then transferred by the student to the level of subconscious attitudes. The main point in this process is a clear understanding that in the soul of each person there is something sacred, which is the essence of his worldview. If he allows others to trample on this sacred thing, he will never be able to live as a human being again. Therefore, it is better not to allow anyone to try to kill him, no matter what the cost. It is better to die than to allow abuse! Death inevitably comes to any person, but no one knows in advance when to expect it. Is there any point in being afraid of the inevitable? Honor, dignity, pride, self — respect and respect for other people are not empty words. These are things that are unbearably hard to live without. Therefore, for the sake of their preservation, you can and should sacrifice a lot, including your life! And, therefore, you must always be prepared to face death, no matter how long you have lived in the world and what things you still have to do. This position is, in fact, the basis of the warrior's worldview. In fact, this is how real warriors have always reasoned in both the East and the West: samurai, knights, ninjas, Vikings, Russian vigilantes, Cossacks, and many, many others.

After studying and generalizing the practices of various schools of martial arts, S. V. Vishnevetsky developed his own program of psychological training of a warrior, which absorbed all the best that was in world practice. Self-paroling is based on breathing techniques that allow the trainee to gently, without external influence, pass into altered States of consciousness, allowing the maximum use of all (including reserve) human capabilities to perform the task.
It is widely believed that the development of special abilities is a very complex, long-term task that requires a huge strain of physical, mental and spiritual forces, available only to a select few. This opinion is strongly cultivated by various representatives of various Eastern closed societies and European occult organizations and is essentially an expression of certain ideas and philosophical views of representatives of various religions and their movements.

Perseverance and perseverance in achieving the set goal, strict compliance with the requirements and rules of the method of self – paroling-this is what is required for the consistent development of the beginnings of Slavic martial arts. Therefore, especially in the initial period, self-discipline and control are important. The greater and stricter the control over emotions and thoughts, the greater the focus on achieving the goal-the more successful the movement forward. When further studying the technique, it is strongly recommended not to make the usual "speculative conclusion" about compliance with the text, but to practice each exercise, fixing the initial position, intermediate positions and perception in the course of performing the exercises. It is strongly recommended not to proceed to the next exercise until the meaning of the previous one has "entered into the flesh and blood", has settled not only in the mind, but also in every cell of the body, in muscle groups and individual organs. At the same time, it is extremely important to understand that perception through feeling, remembering specific sensitive and emotional States is the key to conscious and intuitive perception, which develops the ability to think with the whole body, to perceive as much information as possible from the environment. Sensory and emotional perception of both external environmental factors and the internal state of the body is the key point of the method. To develop and improve this perception, the principle of gradually increasing the complexity of exercises and conditions for their implementation is used.

In the initial period of training at the training venue, it is necessary to minimize possible stimuli that affect the person from the environment during the exercise.

Where the exercises are performed, there should be no strangers and random people trained should not interfere with the voices of people, various sounds, the measured ticking of the clock, i.e. anything that distracts from the concentration of consciousness on the exercise.

Nothing should attract attention by its size, shape, brightness, or disorder. There should be no indoor plants or Pets nearby.

It is not necessary to conduct exercises with beginners on the shore of a lake, river, sea, it is desirable to remove or close the water tanks, do not conduct classes during rain and especially during thunderstorms.

There should be no included electrical parting, ground loops, or metals connected to the ground.

Significantly reduces the effect of exercise during increased solar activity.

In no case should mesaline, caffeine, drugs or any doping or pharmacological agents be introduced into the body.

It is desirable that the exercises are performed in biologically active places or premises. If classes are held in nature, it is strongly contraindicated to hold them near a poplar or aspen.

All these requirements look quite strict, but they will significantly speed up the learning process and in the future, all these requirements are consistently reduced. As students accumulate experience in managing their feelings and emotional state, restrictions on external environmental conditions are gradually removed: extraneous noises are allowed, movement in the work area of the students, classes are transferred from isolated rooms to open areas, into the forest, some specific environmental factors are introduced, perception is trained when vision is limited, in a blindfold, in the dark.

Exercises of the method contribute to the overall improvement of the body's condition. For example, when setting the natural type of breathing, which is one of the main keys to prepare the body for various types of combat and other extreme, non-traditional actions, the trainee develops a complex of "correct posture"on a subconscious level. Poor posture, stooping, scoliosis, various violations of the natural curvature of the spine significantly complicate the functions of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems of the body, increase fatigue, and, consequently, increase the learning cycle by 2-3 times. To correct posture defects, a special set of exercises is used, which begins training. Then the diaphragmatic or upper breath, lower breath, or natural type of breathing, sometimes called harmonious or full breath, is gradually mastered. After the trainee has fully mastered the upper, lower and full types of breathing, it should be noted that these exercises were performed in a state of absolute rest. Their main goal is to teach the student to maintain a normal ratio of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the blood and tissues. If the previous exercises are performed easily, without stress, then you can move on to training the body's resistance in conditions of oxygen deficiency (hypoxia) – economical breathing.

To master the technique of Slavic martial arts, it is necessary to learn how to relax yourself as much as possible, regardless of the environment or the specific situation, in addition to installing initial special types of breathing. It is very important to understand that the maximum relaxation of muscles or groups of muscles is achieved through the power of thought. Image representation allows you to disable or switch the muscles from the nerve impulses coming from the motor centers of the brain, consistently translate a number of functions in the subconscious. As a result of self-relaxation, the muscles of the entire body become soft. This is combined with a pleasant feeling of lightness.

Mastering the technique of self-relaxation is especially necessary for people with a strong and rapid response to external stimuli. In a short period of time, they "burn" a huge amount of nervous energy and, as a result, quickly get tired, despite excellent physical indicators.

When mastering the technique of self-relaxation, you should avoid involuntary movements – stimulation, shoulder twitching, etc. By avoiding involuntary movements, a person saves nervous energy.

This does not mean that a person should make a "serious" face when they are relaxed. The expression of the face, regardless of the situation, should be free, not forced, friendly. This is where self-relaxation begins. It is important to learn the following rule:

"In the moment of self-relaxation, do not think about anything." This is helped by remembering sensations, as well as breathing in conjunction with autosuggestion.

The next important element of instilling skills of self-relaxation of muscles is a stable ability to evoke from memory the feeling of warming of the hands and feet. This helps regulate the flow of blood. The highest stage of mastering self-relaxation (in passive forms) is the blunting of sensitivity.

Mastering the technique of self-relaxation is followed by mastering the technique of tension and relaxation of the muscles. This group of exercises allows you to not only consolidate the acquired skills of complete relaxation, but also almost instantly restore the spent energy. The change of tension and relaxation (especially rhythmic) is not only the exercise of the autonomic centers of the nervous system, it is also the ability to maintain such States in the process of work and combat. The final stage of training in the method of self-paroling is to master the complex of psychophysical training.

The correct combination of breath control and self-relaxation leads to the development of neuromotor and emotionally sensitive regulation. It is very important to have a positive internal attitude when performing all exercises and in General in all activities. On the basis of these settings, stable skills of managing the state of the body are formed within the framework of the method. The trainee acquires the skills to work in altered States of consciousness without losing touch with the environment. This fundamentally distinguishes this method from the widely known Eastern methods and methods of bringing in altered States of consciousness, he gets the skills of breathing, relaxation, and adjusts to the supersensible perception of various processes. It forms a stable skill to transform negative emotions and excited States, through "clicking" (turning on) States of combat trance, avoiding inappropriate reactions and careless actions. When the exercises are performed correctly in accordance with the above methodology, the trainee forms a "key", even the mental utterance of which is a setting for specific actions.

Despite the sudden death of S. V. Vishnevetsky, his development was not lost in vain – research methods of psychological training is now successfully engaged in M. B. Ivanov.

But the tasks of psychological training are solved not only within the framework of a special method of self-monitoring. Problems of psychology of shooting are resolved during the course of shooting exercises. Several methods are used for this purpose.

First, the use of special targets. At all stages of training, the silhouette of a person is used as a target.

When evaluating the results of shooting we have fundamentally abandoned the points system, used in sports shooting. On the basis of primary knowledge of anatomy and vulnerable points of the human body, which are given both in medical training, and in hand-to-hand combat, and in shooting, the degree of defeat is estimated, i.e. in the course of training from the first classes, the trainees form an attitude that they shoot at a person. First, the target is a pure symbol, a faceless silhouette (Fig. 1).

Then, when working out complex fire tasks, shooting is carried out on personalized figures – a real image of combat situations corresponding to the conditions of the task is projected on the target screen, with images of real people in appropriate clothing and weapons. While using a second screen and projector, you can make the frequency elements in the second frame is shot, the most likely scenario for this task (Fig. 2 a, b) and during performance of the complex fire problem switch image to a second screen (or the consumption of ammunition).

The next stage of the build-up is two-way tactical tasks using pneumatic analogues of combat weapons. In the course of performing these tasks, you have to shoot at people who act as a real enemy during the task. It should be noted that the use of pneumatic analogues of combat weapons, it turned out to be a very successful option, providing the maximum approximation of the conditions of training tasks to the conditions of real combat. This allows you to play a lot of tactical nuances in the course of training, practically work out the interaction, 80 percent overcome the fear of shooting at a person, work out the almost sensory perception of the surrounding space, an intuitive sense of danger. But the most important advantage of training with pneumatic weapons is that each trainee gets the opportunity to really feel the consequences of their mistakes, including through quite painful hits of shots from the "enemy" (and sometimes their partners!). At the same time, a small amount of organizational and technical measures allows you to ensure almost 100% safety of students.

The fear of weapons in General and the shot from it is also overcome by a whole range of measures both in the framework of training on the method of self-firing, and in the course of all the activities of the trainees. It should be noted that the problem of fear of weapons and reflex reactions to the shot is not as simple as it seems. Typical manifestations of this fear are mistakes in the preparation and production of the shot – excessive muscle tension of the entire body, convulsive squeezing of the weapon in anticipation of the shot," pulling " the trigger. This problem was solved in a complex during the entire training. First of all, we have abandoned the set of restrictions provided for by the current instructions, manuals and orders on the organization of fire training in the handling of weapons. Research and ten years of practical experience have shown that most of these restrictions can be removed without reducing the level of security.

First, the students ' weapons are always with them during classes. Moreover, if the situation allowed, they also had it outside of school hours. At the same time, literally from the first lesson, the algorithm for handling it was very strictly controlled – taking up a weapon, no actions are performed with it until its condition is checked: whether there is a cartridge in the chamber, in what position the USM is. Any auxiliary exercises without shooting ("dry" training) are carried out only after the weapon is discharged with a check by a control descent in a safe direction. In addition, developed on the basis of self-paroling skills of sensory perception provide additional opportunities to control the condition of weapons, for example, the absence or presence of cartridges is recorded by the difference in weight, the balance of weapons.

Secondly, students are given much greater independence when performing shooting exercises. The Manager intervenes in their actions only when mistakes can create a real threat to the shooter, or working next to him.

Third, from the first lesson, all the actions of the students are performed blindly, without the participation of the eyes. This provides the skill of control by feeling, without the participation of the eyes, which also significantly affects the safety of handling it.

Fourth, the volume and content of the exercises performed is a factor of safe handling of weapons, overcoming the fear of it, forming psychological stability and confidence in handling weapons. Each student fires 48-96 rounds per lesson, firing in motion, continuously moving, at fixed and moving targets, with full and limited illumination, in the absence of illumination. Students are not allowed to use any protective equipment in the classroom that reduces the level of factors accompanying the shot. In addition, the simultaneous operation of several trainees adds background elements – the noise of extraneous shots, flying cartridges, the need to control the mutual position with other trainees. Practice shows that to overcome the fear of weapons, two or three sessions with shooting about 200 rounds are enough.

A well-thought-out set of security measures, presented as General principles of working with weapons that do not restrict their use, ensure the formation of stable skills for controlling weapons and effectively handling them. Combined-arms commanders who first came to our classes, especially in the second half of training, when tasks of increased complexity are performed, the first impression is shock.

– "How can you work like this, you break everything that can be broken, you kill each other" – etc. etc. However, in ten years of intensive training, having shot almost half a million rounds of ammunition, I did not have any prerequisites for an accident, let alone any accidents with weapons. A comprehensive approach – psychological practice (self-shooting), targets, the content of tasks and exercises performed, constant support and non-Intrusive, non-limiting control by instructors allow students to form a readiness to perform real combat tasks, solid skills for effective and safe handling of weapons, significantly increase psychological stability, and successfully overcome the consequences of combat stress.

High psychological readiness and stability is one of the most valuable acquisitions of our training. And this is quite natural, because melee has a number of specific features that determine the increased requirements for training the shooter.

We use cookies

We use cookies on our website. Some of them are essential for the operation of the site, while others help us to improve this site and the user experience (tracking cookies). You can decide for yourself whether you want to allow cookies or not. Please note that if you reject them, you may not be able to use all the functionalities of the site.