Action in extreme situations

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If a bomb is detected

When detecting suspicious items, the following security measures should be observed:

  • Do not smoke.
  • Do not use electric igniters or other sources of fire or spark-reproducing objects.
  • Do not touch or touch other objects with your hands.
  • Do not shake, throw, bend, or open.
  • Leave the location of the object immediately, providing security.
  • Notify the environment (employees, family members, other people).
  • Immediately report the incident to law enforcement agencies.
  • Remember: the appearance of an item may hide its real purpose. As camouflage for explosive devices, ordinary household items are used: bags, packages, bundles, boxes, toys, etc.
  • Do not approach explosive devices or suspicious objects closer than the distance indicated in the table.

Recommended removal and cordon distances when detecting an explosive device or an object similar to an explosive device:

Explosives or suspicious items  Distance

RGD-5 grenade

F-1 grenade

TNT block weighing 200 g

TNT block weighing 400 g

Beer can 0.33 liters

Suitcase (case)

Travel bag

Zhiguli type car

Volga type car


Truck (van) 

No less 50 m

No less 200 m

 45 m

55 m

60 m

230 m

350 m

460 m

580 m

920 m

1240 m



Explosives are chemical compounds or mixtures that can explode under certain external influences. There are several types of such external influences:

  • Mechanical (impact, puncture, friction)
  • Thermal (spark, flame, heating)
  • Chemical (interaction of a substance with explosives)
  • Detonation (explosion near explosives).

Most often used for terrorist purposes:

  • RDX is a white crystalline powder with no taste or smell. It does not dissolve in water and is toxic.
  • Ten (pentaerythritol tetranitrate) is a white crystalline powder. Insoluble in water.
  • Tetryl is a powder of white crystals that turn yellow in the light. Insoluble in water.
  • TNT is a solid substance that can be given any shape. Most often found in the form of bars of brown color, similar to household soap, sometimes it is made similar to potatoes. The smell is also a bit like household soap, but the person feels it with difficulty.
  • Melinite is a yellow substance, bitter in taste, found in powdered, pressed and cast form. Slightly soluble in cold water, better soluble in hot water. Strongly colors the skin of the hands in yellow.
  • Plastite is a plastic clay-like substance that does not dissolve in water, and smells faintly of oil.
  • Ammonium nitrate is most often a powdery substance of white, gray, or yellow color. Dissolves with water. At high humidity, it loses its explosive properties.

If the explosion did occur, you must:

  1. Fall to the floor with your head in your hands and your legs tucked under you.
  2. Leave the affected building or premises as soon as possible.
  3. In any case do not use the Elevator.

How to behave when blocked

  • Don't try to get out on your own.
  • Try to strengthen the "ceiling" with nearby pieces of furniture and buildings.
  • Move sharp objects away from you.
  • If you have a mobile phone, call the rescuers at 112.
  • Cover your nose and mouth with a handkerchief and clothing that is as wet as possible.
  • Attract the attention of rescuers by knocking - it is better to knock on the pipes. It is better to shout only when you hear the voices of rescuers-otherwise there is a risk of suffocation from the dust.
  • Never light a fire.
  • If you have water, drink as much as possible.

Contamination of the area with radioactive or toxic substances

General rules:

If you receive information about radiation or chemical contamination of the territory, you must follow the instructions of representatives of the Ministry of emergency situations, law enforcement agencies and local authorities on the procedure for evacuation or shelter in special shelters.

If you do not have accurate information on this subject and you are in the open air, first of all you need to protect the exposed parts of the skin and respiratory tract from radioactive dust or toxic substances. After that, you must urgently take shelter in a safe room or in your own home and do not leave them until you receive accurate information from the authorities or representatives of the Ministry of emergency situations about the actions that you should take, or that the risk of infection has passed.

If your apartment has become a shelter for you, once there, immediately remove the clothes you came in, and if possible, take a shower. Make sure that Windows and balconies are tightly closed, and that ventilation devices are blocked and disabled. Avoid using clothing contaminated with toxic substances again. If circumstances permit, get rid of it.

Do not use electricity until you receive accurate information about the situation. In this case, always have a flashlight and a self-powered radio at hand.

If there was a chemical contamination of the area, this can be judged by the appearance of haze, fog, and droplet suspension in the air. Many toxic chemicals have a noticeable smell, their significant content in the air can be accompanied by symptoms of suffocation, burning on the skin. If you can't use a gas mask or respirator, you can use a handkerchief, scarf, or other cloth soaked in water to reduce the effect of the poison.

It is dangerous to hide from the effects of toxic substances in a cellar, basement or other structures below ground level - many of the toxic chemical compounds are noticeably heavier than air.

Completely refrain from smoking.

There is no universal remedy that neutralizes the effects of all toxic substances and types of radiation, so if you feel symptoms of poisoning -nausea, suffocation, etc. - do not use any medications. If there is a telephone connection and the radio is working, try to get precise instructions or help from representatives of the Ministry of emergency situations or state medical institutions.

After receiving official information that it is possible to leave shelters, avoid approaching places marked with special signs of radiation or biological danger or indicating the possibility of chemical contamination.

Only eat specially tested foods or canned food. Remember that you can't drink tap or well water until the authorities declare it safe. You can not eat vegetables and fruits if you are not sure that they were grown and stored in areas that were not affected by infection. This rule should be followed especially strictly if there is a possibility of bacteriological contamination of the area.

Remember that many toxic substances and radioactive elements have the ability to cause irreparable harm after a sufficient amount of them has accumulated in the body.

The behavior in case of fire

  • * Get out of the building as quickly as possible, crouching as low as possible.
  • * Wrap wet cloths or clothing around your face to breathe through them.
  • If there is a fire in the building and the door is closed, first touch the handle with the back of your hand. If it is not hot, open the door and check if there is smoke or fire in the next room, then go through. If the door handle or the door itself is hot, never open it.
  • If you can't get out of the building, you need to give a signal to the rescuers, but you should only shout as a last resort, because you may suffocate from the smoke. It is best to wave an object or clothing out of the window.

(Based on the materials of «Антитеррор. Практикум для горожанина». Сборник/сост.: редакция сайта «Антитеррор. Ру»: Европа; Москва; 2005).

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