Hand-to-hand combat basics

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  1. Base stance

Basic stance optimally comfortable body position that allows you to perform the necessary actions in hand-to-hand combat.

This stance is the main (training) (Fig. 1 a, b), and preparations for combat with or without weapons – derived from the base stance (Fig. 1 в).

When taking the base stand, the feet are placed shoulder-width apart, which ensures the optimal size of the support platform, while the feet are parallel. The position of a light squat (legs slightly bent at the knees) provides, thanks to the accumulation of elastic strain energy in the ligaments and muscles, readiness to move in any direction, including shock actions, with optimal energy consumption. A straight back and pelvic tilt angle (40-45º) contribute to an even distribution of gravity, as well as the conclusion of the line of gravity in the center of the support platform.

The shoulders are loosely lowered, and the head is slightly tilted. The chin covers the throat (Adam's apple), and the optimal viewing angle is provided for the eyes.

The arms, with the upper frame (Fig. 1 a), are bent at the elbow joints. The elbows are slightly adjacent to the body, protecting the liver and spleen, and the fingers, as an extension of the hands and forearms, are located at eye level. With the lower frame (Fig. 1 b), the hands are freely positioned along the inner or outer surface of the thighs. This position of the hands ensures their greatest speed and accuracy of movement in the optimal working space with optimal effort when meeting the enemy's attacks or applying various blows to him.

Due to the fact that the anthropological data of each person is their own, individual, we do not require strict imitation when performing a particular action, so when working out various exercises, including the   stance, the form of it will be for each trainee (subject to the basic rules) its own, special.


  1. Move the stance

Moving in a stand is a u-turn or taking a body position at an angle to the opponent's attack, as well as a step, substep, step back, step with a substep, bounce, bounce, jump, and others. Let's look at one of the main ways of moving – "step with substep". "Step with substep" is one of the "keys" in mastering the system of building movements.

To perform a "step with a substep", you must:

- from the base stand or ready to fight (Fig. 2 a) substitute one of the legs with the heel to the heel of the other leg, in this case right to left, and turn your hips in the direction of the selected movement (Fig. 2 b). In this way, we stand at an angle to the enemy's attack, and, even in the case of missing a blow, we ensure the ricochet of its shock parts;

- take a step in front of the standing foot, in this case the left (Fig. 2 в). with this movement, we reduce the distance from the enemy, ensuring the addition of speeds

two bodies in the case of strikes on the" failed " enemy.

- step up (restore the support platform) or step back in the cases described above (Fig. 2 r).

Performing a "step with a substep" allows you to stand at an angle to the direction of the enemy's attack and at the same time reduce the distance with it, i.e. to make contact.


Lower acrobatics.

Lower acrobatics includes many different actions – safe falls, rolls, somersaults, crawling, sliding, and others.

  1.  Falls

If you fall on your chest (Fig. 3), you must:

from the base stand (Fig. 3 a), lowering the pelvis down (Fig. 3 b), throw the legs back and to the sides and land on the bent at the elbow joints and exposed in front of the chest arms. The elbows should be spread out to the sides (Fig. 3 в). The contact of the hands with the surface begins in the following sequence: fingertips – fingers – palms – inner surfaces of the forearms. This provides smooth and silent shock absorption of the fall.

When falling to the side (left, right) of the base stand (Fig. 4 a) curl up in the hips (Fig. 4 b), throwing knees bent legs to the side (left or right) (Fig. 4 в), to land on his hands, as if you fall on the chest. In this case, the legs bent at the knees should be at an angle of ≈ 900, the angle between the hip of the bent leg and its lower leg should also be ≈ 900, which is necessary to prevent damage to the knee joints. The head should be raised (Fig. 4 r).

When falling on your back  from the base stand (Fig. 5 a) sit down, pull any leg forward (depending on which way the fall is made) and "sit" on the heel of the support leg with a hip that is different from that leg (Fig. 5 b, в). In this case, the right hip on the left heel. The right hand reaches for the heel of the right foot, helping to round the back (Fig. 5 r). After that, roll over the one-sided broadest muscle (Fig. 5 e) and turn over on your entire back (Fig. 5 ж), tucking your feet under you. This compression extinguishes the energy that throws the legs up. Your chin should be pressed against your chest. Hands at the moment of contact with the surface do not rest.


  1. Rolls (left, right)

Rolling on the knees is performed from the initial position "sitting on the knees" (Fig. 6 a). To make a movement, for example, to the left, it is necessary to straighten the left leg and fall on the right hip (Fig. 6 b). Then turn on the left hip, bending the left leg at the knee and straightening the right leg (Fig. 6 в). Next, reach for the straightened right leg and sit on your knees (Fig. 6 r).

The hands are constantly on the knees while moving, and the eyes are looking at the surrounding environment.

Rolling lying down can be performed both from the sitting position on the knees, and from the base   stance.

From the kneeling position (Fig. 7a), you should lower yourself (when moving to the left) to the right side, following the straightened left leg (Fig. 7b). After that, turn over on your full back, leaving your legs bent at the knees (Fig. 7 в). To continue the movement, it is necessary to turn on the left side, pull the left leg bent at the knee to the chest, and with the right hand reach for the right leg being straightened (Fig. 7 r). Then sit on both knees (Fig. 7д).

Keep in mind that your elbows should not hit the surface during rolling. To do this, they must be removed in the fold between the hip and the body.

When rolling in the other direction, the movement begins with a turn on the opposite hip described.


  1. Somersaults.

Somersaults (forward, backward) performed from the main (base)   stance or from the knee (Fig. 8 a). When performing a forward somersault with the arms extended in different directions, a step forward is made with any leg bent at the knee. The arms are spread forward and in different directions, and the second leg is pushed (Fig. 8 b).

The head is deflected under the shoulder opposite to that through which the somersault is performed. Contact with the surface begins with the fingers (hands) of the hands, continues through the forearms, shoulder (Fig. 8 в).

The arms are rotated in the direction of movement in the shoulder joints and the main contact of the body with the surface is on the back of the deltavid muscle (Fig. 8 r). By twisting the hips, contact with the surface continues diagonally "the supporting shoulder (deltoid muscle) – the opposite hip".

The push leg at the last stage is the fly leg (Fig. 8 д). At the expense of the Mach, the exit from the somersault into the   stance is performed with a turn in the course of rotation on the left (in this case) foot (Fig. 8 e) or another action is performed (some fall, transition to another somersault, and others).

When performing a forward somersault with the arms extended to one side from the base stand (Fig. 9 a), a step is taken forward, and the arms are extended to the left with a twist in the shoulder joints at the moment of contact with the surface, the head is deflected in the same direction (Fig. 9 b, в).

The main contact with the surface (at the moment of" landing") begins the same way as in the previous somersault, from the back of the deltavid muscle and continues diagonally to the opposite hip (Fig. 9 r, д). The exit from the somersault is performed as in the previous case: with a turn in the direction of rotation on the left (in this case) foot (Fig. 9 e).

When performing a backward somersault from the base   stance (Fig. 10 a), perform a deep squat and twist your hips in the direction selected for the somersault (Fig. 10 b). After that, perform a fall on your back, rolling along it diagonally "the hip that came into contact with the surface – the opposite shoulder" (Fig. 10 в). The arms are thrown in different directions at an angle of ≈ 900 to the body and are rotated at the moment of making a turn over the support shoulder. The legs, performing the max, are thrown behind the head (Fig. 10 r). The head thus deviates in the opposite direction to this shoulder (Fig. 10 д). Exit from the somersault is performed in the base   stance or in the derivative to perform an action (Fig. 10 e).


  1. Move on the lower level.

- Preparatory exercise for the exercise "star".

The initial position is taken lying in the rest with hands and feet face down (Fig. 11 a). Starting the exercise, it is necessary (in this case) to bend the right leg at the knee joint and carry it under the left leg (Fig. 11 b). leaning on the right hand, turn the body over the left shoulder to meet the movement of the right leg, and take the position of the stop in the surface with your hands, feet, and back down (Fig. 11 в). After that, continuing the movement, carry the bent left leg under the right (Fig. 11 r), turn around to face the surface and take the starting position (Fig. 11 д).


-  Exercise "Star".

From the initial position "lying on your back" (Fig. 12 a), when moving, for example, to the right, you need to twist in the pelvis and carry the left leg bent at the knee under the right leg while turning to the left side (Fig. 12 b). Continuing the movement, take the position "lying on your stomach" (Fig. 12 в). After that, rotating in the chosen direction, turn to the right side, extending the right leg under the knee bend of the left (Fig. 12 r). This is the third main intermediate position. The final phase is a turn on the back (Fig. 12 д). This exercise is advisable to perform smoothly, without hard, sharp jerks. Each subsequent movement must "flow" from the previous one. The eyes of the trainee should survey the entire space around.


-  Exercise "falling by the method of "sliding".

From the "standing" position (Fig. 13 a), sit down, twist your hips in the chosen direction and, depending on this, extend your right or left leg (in this case, the left) at an acute angle to the surface on which the fall is made (Fig. 13 b). After that, continuing to squat, it is advisable to start the contact of the foot with the surface by lifting the foot, and the hands as if falling sideways. The leg rotates and contacts in the following sequence: "the rise of the foot – the outer side of the lower leg – the front side of the thigh" (Fig. 13 в).

At the moment of contact of the hip with the surface, a flip is performed on the stomach and chest, and the hands, preventing a hard impact on the surface, continue to move the body by pushing in the direction of the accumulated inertia (Fig. 13 r). The final phase of this fall (Fig. 13 д) allows the trainee to perform various turns and other movements and actions in the direction chosen according to the situation.

These exercises are practiced without weapons and with weapons, with open and blindfolded eyes, both on a smooth surface, and with overcoming obstacles, for example, on a conventional combined-arms obstacle course.

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